Annual Technical Report 2009 on Patent Information Activities submitted by Hungary (CWS/ATR/PI/2009/HU)
Where URLs are requested below, it is preferred that either URLs which are likely to remain stable over time (three years or more) are provided, or home (main) page URLs are provided with a short explanation of how to access the corresponding information.
The term "patent" covers utility models and Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs). Offices which issue design patents should report their design patent information activities in their Annual Technical Reports on Industrial Design Information Activities.
I. Evolution of patent activities
Changes experienced in terms of application filings and grants with respect to the previous year
I. Evolution of patent activities
ACHIEVEMENTS AND SUCCESS
NEW OPTION TO SPEED UP PATENT PROCEDURES: PATENT PROSECUTION HIGHWAY
The HPO signed bilateral agreements with three national IP offices – on 30 June 2009 with the Japan Patent Office, on 22 October 2009 with the National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland and on 7 December 2009 with the Austrian Patent Office – enabling the offices to speed up the processing of patent applications in order to offer more effective services for the customers and to reduce the patent workload. In compliance with the agreements, the pilot project Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) was launched in August 2009.
The PPH was originally a Japanese initiative based on bilateral agreements, which – besides providing more effective services for the customers – may offer solutions to manage the increasing volume of more and more complex patent workload worldwide.
The PPH project is advantageous for applicants who, due to their participation in the modern globalized economy, wish to obtain protection for an invention in several countries, for example in Japan and in Hungary at the same time. The essence of co-operation is that the national IP offices mutually recognise and utilise the work that has already been performed by the other office concerning the invention. Therefore they can perform their official duties in the patent procedures faster and in better quality, allowing the applicants requiring protection for the same invention in the country concerned to obtain patent protection in a shorter time.
According to the bilateral agreements, the applicants are, therefore, enabled to request an accelerated procedure concerning the inventions for which the IP office of the other contracting country has already performed the examination and established the patentability of the invention in respect of one or more claims.
Through the PPH project the HPO entered the circle of the world’s leading IP offices. With its pragmatic approach, the project became a widely used solution for cooperation. Its popularity is indicated by the fact that nearly a dozen national offices participate in this cooperation. The participants – including the HPO – are the national offices of the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, Canada, South Korea, Singapore, Denmark, Finland, Austria and the European Patent Office.
COMMITTEE ON PATENT LAW OF THE EUROPEAN PATENT ORGANISATION
The Committee on Patent Law was established by the Administrative Council of the European Patent Organisation (EPO). Its duties include the support of the Administrative Council in patent law issues. This Committee is thus responsible for the preparation of the European Patent Convention’s (EPC) amendments and review, as well as for the preparation of amendments to the Implementing Regulations to the EPC. Its duties also cover the coordination of national rules of the contracting states in connection with the application of the EPC, as well as the coordination of the European position related to the international harmonisation of patent law.
The Committee on Patent Law meets regularly – according to the tasks and demands – with the participation of the representatives of the thirty-six contracting states to the EPC and the delegations of the extension organisations and states, holding annually 3-4 meetings on average. In the recent period the Committee on Patent Law contributed to the achievements of the EPO in several issues of strategic importance. With envisaging the legal framework of the cooperation between the European Patent Office (EPO) and the national offices, it facilitated the establishment of the European Patent Network, and it also drew up the regulatory background for the utilisation of national research results by the EPO as an important element of the network-based cooperation. The Implementing Regulations reviewed in 2000 to the EPC was elaborated and presented for the approval of the Administrative Council also by this Committee. The global harmonisation of the law on patents and the legal conditions of international work sharing between patent offices are constant items on the agenda of the meetings. In the recent period the Committee focused on the initiatives on regulation which aimed at the improvement of the quality of European patents and of the legal security of the European patent system (e. g. with the filtering of procedural abuses committed by a series of divisional applications). It is also partly due to the Committee’s work that the change of the European patent procedure to a delayed examination system was – at least for a certain time – taken off the “political” agenda of the EPO.
The Committee on Patent Law probably will have to play a significant role in the preparation of the EPC review needed for the introduction of the European Union patent.
The Vice-President for Legal Affairs of the HPO was elected Chair of the Committee on Patent Law by the Administrative Council in July 2005, who – performing his second three-year period in this position – is responsible for managing the work of the Committee. The Chair of the Committee on Patent Law – similarly to the Chairs of the other two standing committees – participates in the work of the Board responsible for the preparation of the meetings of the Administrative Council.
HUNGARIAN PRESIDENCY IN THE EU IN 2011
The HPO plays a most active role in establishing the Hungarian position in IP matters and represent it on decision making fora in the EU, as well as in preparing for the duties of the Presidency of the EU Council to be performed by the Hungarian Government with regard to the issues concerning intellectual property.
Within the Inter-ministerial Committee for European Affairs (ICEA), the expert group for the elaboration and coordination of Hungarian position concerning intellectual property is headed by the Vice-President for Legal Affairs of the HPO. This is also the case in the Hungarian delegation during the meetings of the Council’s working parties on industrial property.
In the framework of the preparation for the Presidency, the HPO has delegated several members to the so-called “Presidency Task Force” which is responsible for performing the duties deriving from the Spanish-Belgian-Hungarian trio Presidency. Under close cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement, the HPO participated in elaborating the IP chapter of the Trio Operative Programme and contributes to the preparation of the programme of the Hungarian Presidency.
The duties of the HPO as an industrial property office include the processing of the trade mark application for the logo of the trio Presidency, as well as the eventual registration of that trade mark.
Preparation of intellectual property legislation and application of law
Preparation of intellectual property legislation
The Hungarian Patent Office (HPO) performed to a high level its duties related to the preparation of legislation with a comprehensive approach and in an efficient manner. The majority of the tasks focused on the preparation of amendments to the legislation concerning industrial property and copyright. An important part of the work was related to Hungary’s membership of the European Union, the European Patent Organisation and the World Intellectual Property Organization.
It was in April 2009 that the so-called “industrial property package” prepared in 2008 was approved. On 20 April 2009, the Parliament adopted Act XXVII of 2009 on the amendment to certain industrial property laws, which entered into force on 1 August 2009.
Act XXIII of 2009 on the accession to the Agreement on the Application of Article 65 of the Convention on the Grant of European Patents, adopted in London on 17 October 2000 promulgates the London Agreement, and contains the amendment of Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents, which is necessary for the accession to the London Agreement. The London Agreement aims to partly waive the requirements for, and the costs of, translation of European patents. After accession, the whole text of the patents valid in Hungary will be available in English language, while the claims defining the scope of protection will be translated in each case into Hungarian. The act will enter into force in Hungary on 1st January 2011.
Due to the expanding range of industrial property documents that may be filed with the HPO in an electronic way, it was necessary to amend Government Decree 147/2007. (VI. 26.) Korm. on the detailed rules concerning electronic filing of certain documents in industrial property procedures. The amendment was drafted by the HPO. The decree contains, inter alia, provisions for creating opportunities for electronic filing of requests for the validation of European patents, as well as extending the rules for the electronic filing of industrial property communications to the requests for renewal of design protection.
The annual maintenance fees and the fees for administrative services in industrial property procedures before the Hungarian Patent Office were re-established. With regard to the economic crisis, the amount of the annual maintenance fee for patents, were already modified before Act XXVII of 2009 on the amendment to certain industrial property laws, which concerns the annual maintenance fees, entered into force on 1st August 2009. The amendment of Government Decree 19/2005. (IV. 12.) GKM on the fees for administrative services in industrial property procedures before the Hungarian Patent Office, having entered into force on 11 June 2009, re-structured the annual maintenance fees for patents with a view to offering substantial support to the domestic patent activity. In accordance with the government’s objectives of encouraging the innovation and patent activities of the innovative domestic small and medium-sized enterprises, the annual maintenance fees for patents considerably decreased in the first three years of protection, with regard to the financial burden of the early stage exploitation of patents. According to the new schedule of fees, it is only from the 6th year on that the maintenance fees are raised in respect of patents that can already draw growing benefits, thus, the amount of the maintenance fee projected for the next 20 years has not changed practically.
The national report of Hungary (and the necessary data collection) on the implementation of Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights was completed within the deadline of 29 April 2009, and was forwarded to the European Commission. The report was prepared in close co-operation with the Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement (hereinafter referred to: MJLE). The English and Hungarian language versions of the document are available on the website of the HPO.
The amendments to the regulations relating to the different international agreements in the field of industrial property (Patent Cooperation Treaty, Madrid Agreement and Protocol, Hague Agreement, European Patent Convention), which do not have to be ratified, as the treaties authorized the organisations established by themselves to amend these regulations, are in need of promulgation in the Republic of Hungary, independently of their entry into force under the international law. The HPO prepared the draft legislation on their promulgation in the obligatory format prescribed by the MJLE.
Written comments were prepared by the HPO to the questions referred by the Lithuanian Supreme Court of Justice for preliminary ruling to the European Court of Justice in the case C-66/09 of Kirin Amgen in the subject of supplementary protection certificates. The subject of the case is the interpretation of the transitional provisions of the Community regulation on the supplementary protection certificates of medicines.
OPERATION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROFESSIONAL BODIES
Hungarian Council for the Protection of Intellectual Property
During the eight years since its establishment, the Hungarian Council for the Protection of Intellectual Property (hereinafter referred to as the “Council”) has become a body playing an orientating role in the intellectual property profession. Its operation has helped the work of the central public administration and its activities commanded keen domestic and international interest. The activities of the Council are regulated by Article 115/F of Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents.
In June 2009, the fourth volume of an intellectual property protection series, co-edited by the HPO and the Council, entitled “White Paper on Intellectual Property Protection, 2008-2009” was published. The volume devoted to the ongoing issues of intellectual property protection, containing nine studies, presents the latest developments in industrial property legislation, the pillars of the National Strategy Against Counterfeiting, elaborates on the current issues of trade mark legislation, gives an overview on the services of intellectual property protection in Europe as well as gives an insight into the current issues of copyright legislation.
It was with the professional and financial support of the Council that the "The economic contribution of the copyright-related industries in Hungary" was prepared, an analysis which, using the macroeconomic data of 2006 and applying the international methods elaborated by the WIPO quantifies the economic performance and employment ratios of the so-called creative industries. In comparison with the performance of the traditional economic sectors and in light of the international data, it indicates an increasing contribution (up to 7%) of the copyright-related industries to the Hungarian economy as a whole. It was in appreciation of the relevant efforts of the HPO that the HPO’s analysis of the copyright-related industries published in 2005 was included in a volume of international studies translated into Japanese and published by the Japan Copyright Office.
In compliance with its operational rules, the Council held four meetings. It discussed:
- the report on its activity in 2008 and its work plan for 2009;
- information on the amendments of certain industrial property laws;
- information on the legislation concerning orphan works;
- the situation of the current copyright issues before the European Union;
- the intellectual property event related to the World Science Forum (WSF);
- the legislation concerning the Body of Experts on Copyright;
- the action plans related to pharmaceutics and biotechnology, as well as public road vehicle industry;
- the National report of Hungary under Article 18 of Directive 2004/48/EC on the enforcement of intellectual property rights;
- the community initiatives relating to the further development of the European patent system (European patent, patent litigation);
- the report on the current issues of international and Community copyright legislation;
- the analysis, entitled “The economic contribution of the copyright-related industries in Hungary”;
- the international legislative tendencies relating to copyright limitations and exceptions and the issues of the Hungarian legal policy;
- the HPO’s questionnaire on design protection;
- the implementation of the National Strategy Against Counterfeiting;
- the questions relating to a digital Hungary and intellectual property protection.
Body of Experts on Industrial Property
The Body of Experts on Industrial Property acted in the matter of 14 requests and commissions. An expert opinion was prepared in 4 cases, one case was terminated due to lapse of interest, and one further case is ongoing. The majority of commissions were initiated by courts, investigating authorities and economic entities.
Body of Experts on Copyright
The Body of Experts on Copyright received 26 requests; the number of requests received in 2008 and continued in 2009 was 7. Eleven appointments were received from courts, 2 requests from the police, one from a mayor’s office, and 12 from private organisations (enterprises, associations and law offices). The requests concerned a wide range of copyright and related rights issues, with the emphasis being on book publishing, computer programs, architectural creations and their designs.
INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY OFFICIAL EXAMINATION AND PROCEDURES
As a consequence of the global economic-financial crisis, the increasing tendency of previous years in the number of applications within the framework of the international patent cooperation treaty (PCT) designating Hungary came to a halt. WIPO registered 155 000 PCT applications, that is, the number of applications decreased to a smaller degree than expected, by 4.5% compared to the previous year.
In the years following the accession to the European Patent Convention on 1 January 2003, a continuously increasing number of cases relating to granted European patents have been filed in respect of Hungary. In 2009, the number of European patents designating Hungary was above 25 000, surpassing by 9% the figure of the previous year; the HPO received 2309 requests for validation of European patents, which is 4.4% more than in 2008.
As a result of Hungary’s accession to the Community and European protection systems, a considerable part of the foreign applications filed directly with the HPO in the previous years shifted to the European or the Community route. Consequently, following the year of accession and in all relevant titles of protection, the number of industrial property matters filed in the national route, domestically and directly with the HPO from abroad, decreased as expected. The decrease in the number of patent applications between 2000 and 2008 was mainly due to the decline in the number of foreign applications filed directly with the HPO and to that of the PCT applications entering the national phase. As a result of the upward trend in the domestic patent application activity, however, there was an increase in the volume of patent applications filed in the national route.
The level of patent, utility model activities of the Hungarian applicants increased compared with the previous year. The volume of domestic patent applications, which was registered at the level of roughly 700 in the previous years, showed a favourable upward trend, surpassing by 11% the figure of 2008. The favourable trend in the patent applications can be the result of, inter alia, the innovation support activities of the Research, Technology and Innovation Fund and the awareness raising activities of the HPO in the past years. Patent activity is closely related to the intensity of Hungarian research and development and innovation, to the industrial property awareness and the property relations within the Hungarian economy.
Although the number of applications filed by Hungarian applicants abroad continued to be extremely low, both the European patent and the Community or international (Madrid Agreement) trade mark activities showed an upturn compared to the previous year.
The figures of the industrial property activity of foreign applicants in Hungary indicate the international interest in the Hungarian economy and market and also the integration of the Hungarian economy in Europe. Since the accession to the European Patent Convention on 1 January 2003 a growing number of foreign applicants have requested protection for the territory of Hungary not directly but following the European route, that is, in the procedure before the EPO.
As a result of the accession to the European and Community protection systems, the amount of industrial property with protection extending to the territory of Hungary has been continuously increasing year by year. These protections must be respected by all domestic market players during their economic decision making.
The HPO has performed the tasks of a receiving office deriving from the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), – in respect of the euro-PCT– deriving from the accession to the European Patent Convention on 1 January 2003. Hungarian applicants have filed 112 PCT applications, 6 European patent applications via the HPO as a receiving office. Through its IP information activities, the HPO supports primarily the preparation of international applications of domestic SMEs and individual inventors.
The number of applications within the framework of the international patent cooperation (PCT) designating Hungary showed a decline, as a consequence of the economic crisis, compared with the previous year. Although to a lesser degree, compared with the expectations of previous years, the number of requests for validation of European patents in Hungary continued to grow. The continuously increasing number of granted European patents designating Hungary projects a further growth.
Of the patent applications filed in the national route, the number of the applications filed directly with the HPO by foreign applicants and that of the international (PCT) applications entering the national phase remained on a low level, in accordance with the forecasts, as the foreign applications have gradually shifted over to the European route since the accession to the EPC in 2003. The HPO received 756 patent applications filed by domestic applicants, which means a more than 10% increase in the application activity compared with the previous year. 69% of the domestic applications were filed by individuals, 31% of them by institutions. Although the number of domestic applications filed by enterprises grew year by year as of 2005, it remained at a low level. The Hungarian applicants filed an increased number of European patent applications compared with the previous year, but their number of PCT applications fell to 148.
The patent granting procedure of the HPO was completed in 4263 cases, 8939 cases were pending at the end of the year, and the number of granted patents was 2688.
Accelerated technical development and growing market competition urge the applicants to shorten the time of procedure. In the national granting procedure, the effective legislation offers the customers several options – in the various phases of the procedure – for acceleration of the procedure; the applicants availed themselves of these opportunities in more than 190 cases. For the applicants seeking protection for the same invention in several countries, the bilateral Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) agreements concluded with Austrian, Japanese and the Finnish offices created new opportunities for accelerated examination procedure.
Regarding countries of origin of requests for the validation of European patents in Hungary, German applicants ranked first (28%), followed by US (14%) and Swiss (11%) applicants. The concentration of requests for validation of European patents by technical field further intensified: as much as 34% of the requests for validation came from a single technical filed, namely pharmacy. 71% of the requests came from five technical fields: pharmacy, other machinery, metal products, chemistry and instruments.
The patent applications filed following the national route and examined entirely in the national office shows a similar concentration of technical field as to the previous year: 17% of the applications were received from a single technical field, namely mechanics, pushing to the third place pharmacy, formerly leading in the requests for validation of European patents, the share of which was 11%.
The number of patents valid in Hungary has continuously increased since 2005, as a result of a growth in the number of validated European patents. At the end of 2009, the number of valid patents totalled 12 749, 1287 more than in the previous year. Valid patents granted following the national route amounted to 6547, and the number of valid European patents was 6202. The number of valid European patents surpassed that of the previous year by 46%.
Regarding valid patents in Hungary broken down by technical field, both in respect of the patents filed following the national route and the validated European patents, it is pharmacy that ranks first: one-third (33%) of all valid patents are concentrated in this technical field. It is followed by mechanics with an 11% share, and chemistry with a 9% share.
Not more than 8% of the right-holders of valid patents in Hungary were Hungarian (9% in the previous year), thus, 1048 patents were owned by Hungarians. 92% of the right-holders were foreigners, of which the German (26%) and the US (14%) right-holders were in the lead.
The breakdown of valid patents by lifetime shows two peaks: as a result of the increase in the number of validated European patents, 49% of the patents are “young”, 4-7 years old; 28% are “middle-aged”, 11-16 years old.
Ten inter partes cases were completed in the HPO, 16 new procedures were commenced. The number of inter partes cases pending before a board was 25 (19 revocation and 6 non-infringement procedures).
The HPO received 9 new applications for plant variety protection. Protection was granted in 17 cases, 8 ended with a lapse. The number of national plant variety protections valid in Hungary, that is, the joint number of plant variety protections and the plant variety patents according to the old title of protection was 393 at the end of the year; 66% of which were owned by Hungarian right-holders. As a result of Hungary’s accession to the European Union, the effect of Community plant variety rights extends to Hungary as well. In 2009, the Community Plant Variety Office received a total of 2694 applications for Community plant variety rights. Hungarian applicants filed 6 applications for Community plant variety rights.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
As a condition of the participation in the international patent work sharing and of the functioning of an office providing quality services, the HPO has performed the substantive examination of the patent applications and the novelty search in a quality management system since 1 January 2007, with regard to the requirements laid down in the European Quality Management System Product Quality Standards, EQMS. For the initiative of the competent committee of the EPO (Technical and Operational Support Committee, TOSC), the Patent Quality Management Council of the HPO has submitted the evaluation of its quality management system.
In Accordance with the tasks set out in its mid-term strategy, the HPO has arranged the preparatory work for the implementation of the ISO 9001 quality management and ISO 27001 information security systems at the end of 2010. In course of this work, the HPO has reviewed the quality management systems experiences of some major international IP offices and Hungarian central budgetary organisations. Additionally, it has chosen a consulting company (Szenzor Gazdaságmérnöki Kft.) to assist in the establishment of the quality management system.
In 2009, the HPO received 251 utility model applications, which is 13% more than in the previous year. 91% of the applications were of Hungarian origin. 76% of the utility model applications filed following the national route came from individuals.
In 2009, altogether 243 utility model procedures were completed: protection was granted in 166 cases; there were 9 rejections and 68 withdrawals. To the satisfaction of applicants, the duration of the utility model procedure was less than 6 months. The HPO received 2 new requests for revocation, and the procedure was completed in 1 revocation case and in 1 non-infringement case. At the end of the year, 3 cases were pending. The number of valid utility models was 832, which is 11% less than in the previous year. 89% of the utility models were owned by Hungarians, 11% were owned by foreign right-holders, of whom the Czechs and Germans represented 2% each, the Austrian, Slovak and US right-holders represented 1% each.
- MS Office Word 2007
II. Matters concerning the generation, reproduction, distribution and use of primary and secondary sources of patent information
OFFICIAL AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS
In the 114th volume of the Gazette of Patents and Trade Marks 12 issues were published, twice a month, providing more favourable conditions for shortening the registration period of the particularly accelerated trade mark procedure. The content of the Gazette appearing in the middle of the month covers the national and international trade mark publications and is only published electronically. The edition appearing at the end of the month is published in full content in electronic format.
The full content of the Gazette was 2822 pages, the official publications covered 2738 pages, the number of European patent descriptions was 2289, the number of Hungarian descriptions was 389. On average 240 national trade mark applications were published in a month. Since 1 January 2006 the Gazette has been published electronically, and is accessible for free of charge, in full text, in PDF format on the homepage of the HPO. The full text, such as the columns themselves can be downloaded. There was a high interest in the Gazette published on the homepage: the users downloaded 575,541 files, 60% more than in the previous year, the increase was 36% in the number of visits to the site, 26% in the quantity of downloaded data and 22% in the number of downloaded pages, compared to the previous year’s figures concerned.
It was the fourth year that the Industrial Property and Copyright Review was published as a separate special periodical. The full content of the periodical published in every second month was 885 pages. The Review is also available in electronic format on the homepage of the HPO.
INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION SERVICES
The documentation and information services of the Patent Library and Industrial Property Special Library primarily focused on informing the public and on the support of the official patent activities by documentation and information technology.
Clients showed a high interest in the services of the Patent Library: 7394 enquiries were registered, information was provided in 1794 cases by phone and in 2114 cases in person. The subject of the service was search in patent documentation in 1795 cases, and in 687 cases electronic documentation was provided. The Patent Library and Industrial Property Special Library also performed functions directly related to the support the official work.
The collection of Industrial Property Special Library comprising of 20,709 volumes increased by 4% compared to the previous year. The lending is provided electronically through HunTéka online library system. Readers generally visit the Patent Library and the Special Library for the purpose of reading onsite if the documentation on industrial property or copyright is available only in printed form.
III. Matters concerning abstracting, classifying, reclassifying and indexing of technical information contained in patent documents
Hungarian Patent Office (HPO) sends monthly the bibliographic data and either the Hungarian or English abstracts of all published patent applicaions to the EPO. The HU patent documents are published (and also sent to the EPO) in indexed pdf form.
HPO carries out either classification, preclassification and reclassification tasks. HPO uses the IPC classification system.
All the published patent application are classified by the advanced level of IPC during novelty search . From 2009 HPO uses also the ECLA classification system.
After filing a patent application HPO preclassifies it by classes.
The granted patents and published patent applications are reclassified by the newest version of IPC advanced level.
IV. Search file establishment and upkeep
Hungarian Patent Office (HPO) operates an in-house developed Uniform Record System (ENYV).
The searchable database Public Industrial Property Aggregate Collection for Search (PIPACS) containing all titles of protection is accessible on the home-page of the office.
In database PIPACS HPO makes accessible the bibliographic data and either the Hungarian or English abstracts of the published patent applications, in addition every changes in the examination procedures and also the full text of the patent documents in printable and searchable format.
V. Activities in the field of computerized and other mechanized search systems
HPO operates an In-house developed Uniform Record System (ENYV) and an Public Industrial Property Aggregate Collection for Search (PIPACS) containing all the published applications of all titles of protection. HPO uses for novelty search first of all the EPOQUENET system included non-patent literature databases operated by EPO, STN databases, Esp@cenet and any other Internet access datebases.
IT SUPPORT IN OFFICIAL ACTIVITIES
In order to continue the development of the electronic administration procedures, the HPO prepared the introduction of the ELO electronic document management system. The system was customized to meet the special requirements of the HPO by Albacomp IT Plc., a company having good references in the public administration sector. Key users and the IT staff were trained and the digitalisation of the official documentation was commenced.
The tasks related to the official functions concerning national industrial property protection and copyright, to the membership in the European Patent Convention and in the EU were executed by the Uniform Record System (ENYV) established for the support of the office management of industrial property. The development of the office management system focused on: 1) the support of the procedure concerning the licensing of orphan works; 2) establishing the database for the voluntary register of works; 3) the application of a management program supporting the ECLA classification system; 4) the renewal of the forms; 5) developments to meet the provisions of the new decree on fees; 6) improvement of PIPACS database, installing check points; 7) faster edition of the Gazette.
The reconstruction (re-writing) of ENYV was continued, the reconstruction plan and the project plan containing specific steps of development, as well as the so called domain model were prepared.
The HPO successfully applied to the National Development Agency for launching the project “Development of Electronic Information Services” under the Electronic Government Operational Programme (EKOP). According to the schedule the developments were accomplished, the step-by-step reform of the electronic register was started.
The HPO – under uniform principles and with active participation of the staff members dealing with official matters – started to review the electronic publication system (e-publication) related to the industrial property official activities. Proposals and schedules were made concerning the development of the integrated e-publication official database based on single data-input and providing uniform data-flow, as well as for all types of protection the establishment of certified registers managed electronically with uniform and reliable database and with online access. The e-publication system was renewed under the EKOP project and as a part of the development of ENYV.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFICE’S HOMEPAGE
The HPO continued to improve and develop its homepage containing a wide range of professional information. The new options in the menu are: Public Procurement, Enforcement of IP Rights, IP Valuation Forum, under Copyright and Related Rights the Voluntary register of works and Orphan works, under Patents the Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) based on international cooperation, and VIVACE+ as information for enterprises.
The homepage of the HPO contains a collection having more than 58,000 separate web addresses; 55% of them are available in Hungarian, 45% in English. The homepage includes 58,147 URLs, the total size of the files is 24 GB, with the database it is 36 GB.
The homepage was visited by 545,302 individually identifiable visitors 737,200 times. The numbers of visitors and visits were 43% and 36%, respectively, more than in the previous year. The quantity of downloaded pages increased by 22%, the size of downloaded data increased by 26%, which is more than 760 GB. Through the electronic application system accessible from the homepage 212 electronically filed applications, 29 requests for the validation of European patents and 19 requests for renewal of trade mark protection were received by the HPO.
VI. Administration of the industrial property office library, and information products and services available to the public (relating to facilities, e.g., for lodging applications, for assisting clients on searching procedures, for obtaining official publications and registry extracts)
The Patent Library and the Industrial Property Special Library of HPO is a section of the Industrial Property Information and Education Centre. The reading room and Client Services both offer services to the public and are located in a single complex next to the head office.
The public reading room is open 22 hours per week. Six workstations are available to access free online IP sources, databases and in-house IP related and law databases. The workstations of the library are connected to the HPO informatics systems. The most commonly used online databases are the PIPACS (Hungarian IP database), esp@cenet worldwide, WIPO IPDL, OHIM, USPTO and Japanese databases.
The collection of the Patent Library contains the documents of 24 countries and 2 international organisations on paper and optical disks. The paper-based collection contains the documents of three (HU, AT, CH) countries since the first decades of this century. A considerable part of the collection of the Patent Library is acquired in the framework of document exchange.
The collection of the Industrial Property Special Library consists of 21,223 volumes of books, many theses, and foreign and Hungarian professional periodicals covering intellectual property issues.
The collection of the Industrial Property Special Library is continuously developed through purchasing.
The processing of the collection occurs in the HunTéka integrated library system. In the online catalogue the whole collection of the library can be found, including the information published in intellectual property periodicals, and complex and flexible retrieval is possible. Information is updated daily.
The two libraries have four separated stack-rooms.
The Industrial Property Special Library is a borrowing and lending library using an interlibrary loan system. Permission to borrow is given to HPO’s examiners only.
Hungarian PATLIB centres providing a wide services (with a university library or technology transfer office background) in Miskolc, Szeged, Debrecen, Sopron, Győr, Pécs.
Information services available to the public:
Hungarian Patent Office's website for electronic filing of patent applications:
Providing information on business procedures such as: filing, publication, examination and grant procedures related to patents;
Opposition and appeal procedures related to patents:
Information products and services offered by the Hungarian Patent Office:
Official journal of HPO
Library online catalogue:
Information on how to access and utilize the database:
VII. Matters concerning mutual exchange of patent documentation and information
The manufacture of the product ESPACE® PRECES was discontinued from the beginning of this year.
ESPACE® PRECES was one of the members of the ESPACE® CD-ROM series of the European Patent Office. It contains complete patent documents of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania in facsimile mode together with the corresponding bibliographic data. The patent offices of the region established a Consortium for manufacturing the product. The co-ordination of the manufacture was performed by the Hungarian Patent Office and the CD-ROM product is manufactured by Arcanum Informatics Ltd.(Hungary).
The European Patent Office transferred its existing technology including software, and a non-exclusive license for the use of the trademark ESPACE® to the Consortium of the above mentioned patent offices.
Patent documents of the National Offices are accessible through their web-pages and the esp@cenet. On request HPO supplies HU patent documents to the National Offices via ftp.
VIII. Other relevant matters concerning education and training in, and promotion of, the use of patent information, including technical assistance to developing countries (please indicate URLs of web pages of the Office’s website wherever appropriate)
INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY EDUCATION
In the last few decades, the HPO has played an important role in disseminating IP knowledge through its training activities. The two-year long advanced level industrial property course organised by the HPO is a significant element of the development of the Hungarian industrial property culture and of the training of a new generation of professionals. At the end of the course launched in 2007, 22 persons were given an advanced level qualification in industrial property protection, and an additional 10 participants worked on their theses. In September the HPO launched the advanced level industrial property course with the participation of 55 persons, according to the amended provisions on industrial property qualification [Decree 2/2008 (VIII. 22.) TNM].
The intermediate level industrial property course was attended by staff members of patent attorneys’ or law offices, the Hungarian Economy Development Centre, the National Office for Research and Technology, the Hungarian Customs and Finance Guard, innovation agencies, pharmaceutical companies, university knowledge centres and enterprises, 46 persons passed the exam successfully. The Office gave the opportunity to obtain the intermediate level industrial property qualification at the Károly Róbert College for the fourth time, 36 persons passed the exam successfully. Moreover, 13 students applied for the exam of the intermediate level industrial property course at the Agriculture Faculty of the College of Szolnok.
The special industrial property trainings organized for the research and education sector give an excellent framework for disseminating the industrial property culture. Under the cooperation with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the HPO organized one-day industrial property trainings on the issues of practical application of IP protection for the staff members of the network of research institutes on three occasions.
Based on the cooperation agreements concluded with 20 major Hungarian institutions of higher education the students can obtain up-to-date IP knowledge in graduate, post-graduate and in distance learning trainings. 78 applications were received to the invitation published by the HPO for assistance with dissertations. The modern distance learning programme complemented with research – with the participation of more than 220 students – contributed to the spread of knowledge on IP protection at the Ergonomics and Psychology Faculty of Budapest University of Technology and Economics, as well as at the University of Debrecen.
The industrial property protection training organized – with the support of the Grants and Innovation Centre – for the tutors of Eötvös Loránd University was successful, as well as the IP protection training organized as a part of basic business education, with the participation of INNOSTART National Business and Innovation Centre Foundation.
The HPO participated with tutors for the first time on the two-year long course – as a preparation for the European patent attorney exam – organized by CEIPI (Centre d'Etudes Internationales de la Propriété Intellectuelle) and the Hungarian Chamber of Patent Attorneys.
DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY AND COPYRIGHT CULTURE, CUSTOMER SERVICE
In compliance with the international trends and the requirements for national offices, the HPO continued to strengthen its quality service provider character. Through its industrial property services, customer services, IT and education programs, the HPO improved the conditions of awareness, information and education in the domestic industrial property and copyright culture.
INNOVATION SUPPORT, COMPETITION PROMOTION
The HPO contributed to innovation support in Hungary with the special tools of IP protection. Its purpose is to exert an influence of measurable efficiency on IP-awareness and activities of the major target groups of the national innovation sphere (particularly SMEs, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, high education).
The internationally reputed Action Plan Promoting Industrial Property Competitiveness was re-launched under the name of VIVACE+ within the cooperation of the National Office of Research and Technology (NKTH) and the HPO. 14 regional organisations including several former partners of the HPO (Chamber of Commerce and Industry, PATLIB centre) and also some recently joined organisations (ITD Hungary, SEED Foundation for Small Enterprise Economic Development) participated in the programme focusing on raising the industrial property knowledge of enterprises. VIVACE+ is based on the following four pillars: 1) enhancing the assistance in innovation; 2) improving industrial property services of; 3) promotion of IP protection and development of regional network; 4) education, content development and providing information in the field of industrial property.
A questionnaire survey on the awareness of industrial property of Hungarian entrepreneurs was prepared with the assistance of the Foundation for Hungarian Business Research and with the involvement of more than four hundred SMEs. The analysis described and evaluated the changes in industrial property awareness of enterprises in the past four years.
Linked to the institutions of higher education as recognised knowledge centres, the industrial property information centres, the so called PATLIB centres were operated at six universities outside Budapest with the professional assistance of the HPO. According to the contracts concluded between the University of Miskolc, the University of Szeged, NYME-ERFARET Nonprofit Kft. and the HPO, the information points in the libraries of the universities, in the Office for the Utilisation of Research Products and Technology Transfer of the University of Pécs, in the Genomnanotech Knowledge Center in Debrecen and in the Regional Knowledge Centre for Vehicle Industry in Győr are parts of the PATLIB network in-line with the standards of EPO. They provide information on patents mainly for researchers, tutors, inventors and SMEs.
Determining the value of Hungarian-owned intellectual assets is a key element of the involvement of capital from external sources. As a further step of the research and development activities focusing on the adoption of the internationally used IP valuation methodology, the HPO launched a series of symposia in cooperation with four European IP offices (Finland, Austria, UK and Hungary). The first meeting was held in November 2008 in Budapest, the second one in Helsinki on 18-19 May 2009 on the economic and business perspectives of IP valuation. Connecting to the international cooperation in methodology the HPO initiated the establishment of an IP valuation forum, the site of which is available in English through the homepage of the HPO (http://ipvaluation.hpo.hu/), so providing an information platform for enterprises, researchers, universities and investors.
The adaptation of the international methodology of IP valuation to Hungarian circumstances continued, the pilot works for IP valuation of technical solutions elaborated in academic research institutions, being partly under patent protection, were commenced based on the cooperation agreement with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
In order to promote the utilisation of intellectual property, in March 2008 the National Office for Research and Technology – upon the initiative of the HPO and to the debit of the Research and Technology Innovation Fund – announced a competition titled “Obtaining Industrial Property Protection for Hungarian Inventions in Foreign Countries” No. IPARJOG_08 with a frame amount of HUF 200 million, to which the applications could be submitted till 31 December 2009. The Office actively participated in the work of the jury, assessing 116 projects received till the end of the year, of which the jury supported 83 applications.
With regard to the relevant international experiences of offices offering quality services, the HPO offers a wide range of high-level IP protection services against payment, besides its customer services provided free of charge.
The high level services in the field of patent and trade mark searches offer the tools of industrial property for making responsible business decisions. Hungarian and foreign customers may order directly on the homepage of the HPO or of the EPO five patent search services offered by the HPO: novelty search, novelty search with preliminary patentability report, preliminary patentability report, validity search and freedom to operate search. The services may be ordered in English, French and German. Through these services the customers can obtain analytic information for their decisions on patenting. The potential applicants are interested mainly in the novelty search and in the preliminary patentability report.
Since 2006 the works and performances subject to Act LXXVI of 1999 on copyright can be registered in the voluntary register of works at the customer service of the HPO. Since its introduction, the authors have used this service in nearly a thousand cases.
The service IP Pre-Diagnosis based on the French model and introduced by the HPO helps SMEs better exploit their intellectual assets. In the cooperation between EPO and HPO and within VIVACE+ the identification and classification of the intellectual property of 20 enterprises was started through this methodology.
There was a high interest in customer services: 18,781 enquiries were received, 10% more than in the previous year. 61% of the enquiries were received by phone, 33% in person. Providing information on trade marks has been the most important field of customer service for a long time; 38% of all enquiries related to trade marks, 16% to patents and 15% to general information; the number of enquiries increased in all forms of protection compared to the previous year. In connection with the interest in the voluntary register of works the number of enquiries concerning copyright continued to increase, it means more than 10% of all enquiries. The customers requested more and more profound and complex information and more and more customers were interested in the possibilities of obtaining rights abroad.
VISIT OF THE WIPO’S DIRECTOR GENERAL TO BUDAPEST
Due to its importance in diplomacy, the most outstanding international event of 2009 in the HPO was the visit of Mr Francis Gurry, Director General of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, the UN’s special organization for industrial property and copyright), to Budapest between 5 and 6 November 2009.
The reason for Mr Gurry’s visit was to attend the World Science Forum (WSF) organised by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, UNESCO and the International Council for Science. The Director General was invited by Mr József Pálinkás, president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the WSF. The event – besides the original aim of the visit, i.e. Mr Gurry’s speech at the plenary session of the WSF – also gave the opportunity to prepare a rich professional programme. The Director General of WIPO was received by Mr László Sólyom, President of the Republic and Mr Gurry had negotiations with Dr. Miklós Bendzsel, President of the Hungarian Patent Office, Mr Tibor Draskovics, Minister of Justice and Law Enforcement and Mr Vilmos Szabó, State Secretary of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs as well. In addition, Mr Gurry met some of the Hungarian representatives of innovation, research and development, such as Mr Ernő Rubik, inventor and Mr Erik Bogsch, Managing Director of Richter Gedeon Plc. and President of the Hungarian Intellectual Property Council.
Special attention was paid to the meeting with the President of the Republic. During the meeting Mr Gurry and Mr Sólyom exchanged views on the international protection of geographical indications, the possibilities of further extension of international patent cooperation established by the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), as well as on the promotion and support of national industry and innovation capacities through the internationally recognised patent search and examination services of the HPO. The Director General found the initiative of Austria and Hungary to establish a Central European PCT authority realistic from legal and technical points of view, and he considered the plan of the project desirable and useful, with a special respect to the workload of the world’s IP offices. Processing nearly two million patent applications per year with high effectiveness and in proper quality is feasible only under such forms of cooperation. Besides the issues of industrial property, the challenges of copyright in the 21st century were also emphasized during the meeting. The President of the HPO demonstrated the high percentage of the copyright sector in the Hungarian national economy through the latest figures of the HPO’s survey prepared by the methodology of WIPO for the second time. The share of copyright sectors in Gross Added Value was 7.4 %, and they contributed to the employment with 7.2 %, which made the Director General express his recognition for these results. The meeting was closed by a discussion of the special IP needs of SMEs, whereby the parties agreed that further efforts are needed so that the possibilities offered by intellectual property may be better exploited by the customers from this sector.
COMMUNICATION AND PRESS ACTIVITIES
The principle of the HPO’s public appearance is effective and open communication. For this purpose regular relations were maintained with the representatives of the media, mutually informing each other of the possibilities of cooperation.
The HPO published articles on innovation promotion and on raising awareness in the economy newspaper “Napi Gazdaság” and was also represented in the programmes of “Gazasági Rádió” (Economy Radio) and different TV channels, based on cooperation agreements.
In the Hungarian media more than 400 articles, news, radio and TV programmes dealt with IP protection. In addition, nearly 50 articles were published related to the HPO and its activities.
In May a seminar for journalists on raising awareness in industrial property was organized in Tihany by the Club of Hungarian Science Journalists with the professional support of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the HPO. In November the HPO organized a two-day conference entitled “The Knowledge Society and Intellectual Property” within the framework of the European programme “National Action Plan – IP for Journalists” of the EPO, and also published a guide on IP protection for journalists.
The quarterly published “Newsletter on IP protection” providing information and news concerning industrial property and copyright, which is the common publication of the Office and the Hungarian Council for the Protection of Intellectual Property has been issued for six years. The aim of the newsletters, downloadable on the homepage of the Office, is to give information on the latest issues, events and background of IP protection in Hungary and worldwide for the responsible decision makers in IP industry, economy and politics.
The electronic newsletter “e-News”, published every month since 2007 by the Office, gives an edited version of news from the homepage of the HPO for registered customers.
PARTNERS IN PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION
The HPO established professional, training and other cooperation with several institutions, the most significant ones are the following:
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Association for the Protection of Industrial Property and Copyright, Hungarian Association for Innovation, Hungarian Academy of Engineering, Association of Hungarian Inventors, Hungarian Research Student Association, NOVOFER Foundation, Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Journalists of the Federation of Technical and Scientific Societies, National Police Headquarters, Hungarian Finance and Customs Guard, Typotex Electronic Publishing Company, ITD Hungary, INNOSTART National Business and Innovation Centre, SEED Foundation, Ötlet Klub 13 Egyesület (Idea Club 13 Association)
Cooperation in higher education
Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest Tech Polytechnical Institution, University of Debrecen, Eötvös Loránd University, Harsányi János College, Károly Róbert College, Hungarian University of Fine Arts, University of Miskolc, Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design, University of West Hungary, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, University of Pécs, Semmelweis University, University of Szeged, Szent István University, Szolnok University College, International Business School, Police College
Professional communication agreements
Hungarian Television – Delta (TV series on science), Duna Television – Heuréka – Solart Film, Élet és Tudomány Association (scientific association), Jogtudományi Közlöny (Gazette of Jurisprudence), Mérnökújság (engineers newspaper), Napi Gazdaság (economic daily), Világgazdaság (economic daily), Gazdasági Rádió (economic radio), Agrárium, MAG (Hungarian economic development centre), Tudományos Ismeretterjesztő Társulat (scientific educational association), Természet Világa (World of Nature, scientific gazette), Természet-Tudomány Alapítvány (Nature-Science Foundation), Gépgyártás folyóirat (magazine on machine manufacturing).
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IX. Other general information related to the Office that is available on the Internet -- URLs of web pages of the Office’s website that:
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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION
International cooperation focused on exercising rights and meeting obligations deriving from the European Patent Convention and Hungary’s membership in the European Union, as well as on international professional cooperation within the framework of the World Intellectual Property Organization and on the active regional and bilateral cooperation in IP protection.
EXERCISING RIGHTS AS A CONTRACTING STATE IN THE EUROPEAN PATENT ORGANISATION
The HPO, with the participation of delegations headed by the President, successfully accomplished the duties of exercising the rights and fulfilling the obligations of a Contracting State of the European Patent Convention. The Administrative Council of the European Patent Organisation (EPO) held four meetings. During the meetings of the Administrative Council in October and December the candidates were heard and the voting rounds were held within the procedure for the election of the new president of the EPO. The Board, set up for a better preparation of the decisions of the Administrative Council, held five meetings, the Budget and Finance Committee and the Committee on Patent Law held two meetings.
DUTIES ARISING FROM THE MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
The HPO established close cooperation with the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) and fulfilled its obligations as an EU member state. Hungary is represented in the Administrative Board of OHIM – as a member – by the Vice-President for Legal Affairs and – as a deputy member – by the Head of the Trade Mark, Model and Design Department. The Administrative Board and the Budget Committee held two ordinary meetings each, the joint meeting of the Administrative Board and the Budget Committee were held twice, and the so called “liaison meetings” were held three times.
Since 1 May 2004 Hungary has been represented in the Administrative Council of the Community Plant Variety Office by an official of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The HPO’s Vice-President for Technical Affairs performs as an alternate member of the Administrative Council.
The HPO participated at the meetings of the Working Party on Intellectual Property of the Council of the European Union, in the committees of the European Commission and at other experts’ meetings. The HPO participated at 28 such meetings in 2009.
The HPO took an active part in the work of the Inter-ministerial Committee for European Affairs (ICEA). In the system of expert groups of ICEA, the HPO operates the expert group responsible for intellectual property.
The President of the HPO participated – upon an invitation from the Government – at the opening conference of “European Year of Creativity and Innovation” held in Prague. Two reputed Hungarian inventors, Mr Ernő Rubik and Mr Áron Losonczi were also present and were asked to be the “Ambassadors of the Year”.
COOPERATION WITHIN THE FARMEWORK OF THE WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO)
The HPO represented Hungary in the international cooperation under WIPO. As in previous years, the representatives of the HPO regularly participated at the meetings of the standing committees of WIPO. The HPO represented Hungary at the 47th series of meetings of the Assemblies of the Member States, at the meeting of the Coordination Committee, the Program and Budget Committee, the standing committees, as well as at the meetings of the Administrative and Legal Committee, the Consultative Committee and the Council of UPOV.
The President of the HPO was elected as vice-chair of the PCT Union Assembly at the 47th series of meetings of the Assemblies of the Member States. Hungary was elected as a member of the Executive Committee of the Berne Union for copyright, so Hungary preserved its membership in the Coordination Committee which performs the Member States’ supervision over the Assemblies.
The Assembly of the Lisbon Union accepted the report on the previous year’s activity of the Working Group on the Development of the Lisbon System chaired by the Vice-President for Legal Affairs of the HPO, and also supported the proposals concerning the modification of the Regulations under the Lisbon Agreement.
REGIONAL AND BILATERAL INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
As recognition of the excellent work in search and examination, the HPO had opportunities to extend the participation in the international patent work sharing and to improve bilateral cooperation with other offices.
According to the bilateral PCT agreement concluded in the autumn of 2008, as a new stage of the traditionally good cooperation between the Austrian and Hungarian Patent Office, the two offices cooperated in the works performed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty by making international search reports and written opinions. In compliance with the international efforts to establish closer coordination between national offices, the HPO concluded a similar agreement with the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore, which is a significant reference among the high-tech powers of the world.
The annual meeting of the heads of the industrial property offices of the Visegrád Countries, Austria and Croatia was held on 7-9 June 2009, the event was organized by the HPO. The representatives of the Visegrád Countries held a meeting enlarged by the presidents of the Austrian and Croatian patent offices. The agenda focused on the issues of European patent cooperation and regional cooperation.
As a result of the bilateral negotiations during the meeting, on the initiative of the Austrian and Hungarian Patent Office, the consideration of establishing a PCT authority with Central European regional competence was launched by a preparation of a feasibility study. Putting the cooperation with the Austrian Patent Office into an institutional form fits to the regional “Danube Strategy” of the EU and Hungary.
PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS
The HPO successfully made use of the facilities offered by international and European IP projects. In the spirit of this intention the HPO has participated – as head of a working group – since 2008 in the IPeuropAware project assisted by the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) of the European Commission. The purpose of the international project is to coordinate the initiatives of the national patent offices for raising awareness of intellectual property protection. Under the project a publication on the international practice of raising awareness of IP protection entitled „Planning local actions for Intellectual Property Awareness and Enforcement Services” was prepared in English, which is available on http://www.ipeuropaware.eu/outputs.html. The cooperation with other national IP offices also included the organization of events on raising awareness, development of helpdesk services and the preparation of publications.
The report showing the results and the closing of the IP4INNO project, established to disseminate the knowledge on IP and the business practice enhancing innovation among institutions helping enterprises, was prepared.
The cooperation between the European Patent Office (EPO) and the national IP offices is performed under specific National Action Plans, NAP. Under the national action plan on the cooperation for 2008-2009 between EPO and HPO, the HPO concluded contracts for the use of database with Elsevier B.V and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated (IEEE). These contracts allow the patent examiners of the HPO to search in non-patent databases called Science Direct OnSite (Freedom Collection), Embase OnSite, and IEEE/IET Electronic Library through EPOQUE user platform. The survey carried out under NAP on the awareness of IP protection of the Hungarian SMEs was successfully finished. An event for professional journalists was organized in Tihany, and the cooperation with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences was continued.
|1.||Classification is allotting one or more classification symbols (e.g., IPC symbols) to a patent application, either before or during search and examination, which symbols are then published with the patent application.|
|2.||Preclassification is allotting an initial broad classification symbol (e.g., IPC class or subclass, or administrative unit) to a patent application, using human or automated means for internal administrative purposes (e.g., routing an application to the appropriate examiner). Usually preclassification is applied by the administration of an office.|
|3.||Reclassification is the reconsideration and usually the replacement of one or more previously allotted classification symbols to a patent document, following a revision and the entry into force of a new version of the Classification system (e.g., the IPC). The new symbols are available on patent databases.|