Annual Technical Report 2009 on Patent Information Activities submitted by Poland (CWS/ATR/PI/2009/PL)

Where URLs are requested below, it is preferred that either URLs which are likely to remain stable over time (three years or more) are provided, or home (main) page URLs are provided with a short explanation of how to access the corresponding information.

The term "patent" covers utility models and Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs). Offices which issue design patents should report their design patent information activities in their Annual Technical Reports on Industrial Design Information Activities.

I. Evolution of patent activities

Changes experienced in terms of application filings and grants with respect to the previous year

In terms of IT changes, during 2009, the Polish Patent Office's applicants were using the on-line filings facility more frequently in comparison with previous years.
Filings to the Office are increasingly more often preceded by searches in the electronic collections than in the paper holdings.

Trends or areas experiencing rapid changes with respect to the previous year

In 2009, the Polish Patent Office (PPO) received 3 089 patent applications under the national procedure, out of which 2 899 were filed by domestic applicants and 190 by foreign applicants.
A big increase in domestic patent applications under the national procedure was observed in comparison with the year 2008 (of approx. 16.5%).
51 applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty entered the phase of examination carried out by the Office (so-called national phase).
Under the international procedure, as the receiving Office, the PPO received from domestic applicants 157 patent applications under the PCT procedure and 77 European patent applications with the aim of seeking protection abroad.
The total number of patent applications filed in 2009 amounted to 3 140, which is of 13.0 % more than in 2008.
In 2009, the Office received from foreign applicants 29 applications for the grant of supplementary right of protection for medicinal products and plant protection products in order to protect rights under Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC). The Office settled 8 SPC applications.
In 2009, 7 464 decisions in cases concerning grants of patents were issued, out of which 3 689 positive on granting patents.
The number of cases pending on 31 December 2009 - as compared with the same period in 2008 - decreased by 4 232 (that is 16.3 %) and amounted to 21 709.
In 2009, the PPO received and examined formally 3 558 translations into Polish of European patents, which is the pre-condition for validating the protection of the related inventions on the territory of the Republic of Poland.
In total, in December 2009, 26 296 patents remained in force, out of which 8 119 were European patents.

In the scope of IT field, the following projects were introduced:
- Virtualization of servers and personal workstations based on the blade-type servers.
- Implementation of the RegisterPlus software application for patents (utility models - afoot) for the in-house purposes temporarily. We intend to launch the service for the public.

The PPO is currently redesigning its office's website which will be launched in 2010.
Patents and utility models were in the course of the whole procedure conscientiously described together with the opposition practice. At the same time, for purposes of the Intranet we arranged for the virtual environment based on MS Sharepoint Services solution. Works are continued in 2010.

URLs of web pages of the Office’s website that provide statistics related to patents

Statistics are accessed at the following URLs: (Annual Reports)

Detailed statistics may be bespoke provided (write to

II. Matters concerning the generation, reproduction, distribution and use of primary and secondary sources of patent information

Publishing, printing, copying (main types of publications of the Office in the field of patent information, etc.)

In 2009, the following publications (periodicals) were issued:

-"Biuletyn Urzedu Patentowego" (first level Official Gazette - bi-weekly) 26 numbers, i.e. 7 187 copies;
-"Wiadomosci Urzedu Patentowego" (second level Official Gazette- monthly) 12 numbers, i.e. 3 106 copies;
-"Dziennik Urzedowy UPRP" (The PPO Journal-annual) 2 issues and index i.e. 233 copies;
-2007 Annual Report of the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland, 1300 copies;
-Patent Specifications (3926 titles) - 90 580 copies;
- Booklets entitled "Industrial Property Protection" (5 numbers) - 1500 copies
and one-off publication of Consolidated texts of implementing acts to the Industrial Property Law.

In the scope of IT field the following activities were performed:
-Maintenance and development of the PL Publication Server - the electronic holdings of PL patent specifications since 1924; PL utility models since 2001 and EP validations in Poland since June 2005. The holdings appear in PDF format; may be downloaded either in XML or zipped format containing XMLs and PDFs; references to both esp@cenet retrieval system and EPO RegisterPlus are set up; please consult:
-Esp@cenet - now under EPTOS 6.04 (please see below: X. Other relevant matters) - efforts are made to publish the entire collection of all PL applications and granted patents published since 1924 (both collections on the PL data base and the Worldwide data base), please notice:

Main types of announcements of the Office in the field of patent information

Announcements on patents and utility models are primarily published in the official gazettes on paper carrier: "Biuletyn Urzedu Patentowego" - first level Official Gazette (information on patent and utility models applications) and in "Wiadomosci Urzedu Patentowego" - second level Official Gazette (information on granted patents and granted protection rights on utility models). Announcements containing ordinances of the President of the Patent Office, official announcements and communications are published in the Official Journal of the Patent Office. In 2009, 2 377 announcements on filed patent and 600 announcements on utility model applications were published in "Biuletyn Urzedu Patentowego" (first level Official Gazette) and 3 926 announcements on granted patents and 538 granted protection rights on utility models were published in "Wiadomosci Urzedu Patentowego" (second level Official Gazette). All these publications are forthwith available free of charge in PDF format on the PPO's Online Services Portal (
Announcements regarding non-procedural matters, but coupled with the Office's activity like: general information on the PPO's tasks, references, organizational structure, HR matters are published on the Internet version of "Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej" which falls under the official PPO's web site. Many non-regular, important announcements are immediately published within the content of the web site.

Mass storage media used (paper, microforms, optical storage, etc.)

The PPO uses the following carriers of patent documentation to gather national and international collections: CD-ROMs, DVDs, HDs which can generate conventional paper copies for various either in-house or outside purposes; paper has a gradual decrease as a carrier.

Word processing and office automation

-Word processing is carried out using MS 2007 Office and the MS Windows XP is commonly used.
-All examiners have access to the internal and external on-line data bases.
-The digital representation of patent and utility models documentation is delivered directly to the staff's work stands.
-All staff has access to the Internet and Intranet and enjoys the MS 2007 Outlook variety of facilities through the networked PCs which are connected to a local area network.
-The public reading-room was equipped with terminals and 24-inch monitors, and our conference and training rooms were furnished with modern audiovisual means.
-The online filings in the online system - eOLF have been successfully continued, enabling the electronic patent and utility model filings under the national procedure.
-Integration of the application software with e-Phoenix and Soprano systems was performed; integration processes regarding imports of EP, PCT and national applications to the Online Services Portal's environment also took place.

(New) techniques used for the generation of patent information (printing, recording, photocomposing, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), etc.)

The constantly modernized publication system enables production of the Office's publications on its own. The publishing process is based on the DTP system and covers preparation of data contained in the Office's databases, text editing in MS Word programme and picture processing in Adobe Photoshop CS. Final typesetting is made in InDesign 3.0 programme. Printing is performed on the offset machine and digital reproducer. The text of patent specifications is scanned in OCR technique and pictures are scanned in Adobe Photoshop programme. Then, the text is combined with the pictures and the first page with bibliographic data. Finally, the patent specification is proof-read and printed in Ms Word programme. Printing is performed on the digital reproducer.
Parallel to publishing in paper format, patent specifications are posted in PDF format on the PPO's website and in Publication Server.

URLs of web pages of the Office’s website that provide access to online publication of patent documents and gazettes, and to other primary and secondary sources of patent information, including patent publication servers and download of bulk patent data

-IP information on patents and utility models:
-Publication Server - Polish patents (B), utility models (Y) and EP translations into Polish (T): (user interface in 3 languages - PL, EN and FR).
-Polish patents and utility models under Polish version of esp@cenet ( ) with possibility of the redirection to the Worldwide data base containing PL collections (bibliographic data in English).
-Online Services Portal with access to patent gazettes, classifications, e-filings and patent attorney's directory:

III. Matters concerning abstracting, classifying, reclassifying and indexing of technical information contained in patent documents

Abstracting, reviewing, translating

In 2009, Patent literature collection was enlarged by the 3 630 pdf files of European patent specifications, translated into Polish (available online).
Polish abstracts and their English equivalents are stored in the data base, and thus are searched and accessible for further treatment.
The Office's abstracting services are handled by electronic means which aid to place the abstract deliveries in the in-house and external retrieval systems, like: Polish data bases, Official Journal records, esp@cenet (both collections - PL data base and the Worldwide data base), etc.

Classification1, preclassification2 (if applicable), and reclassification3 activities; Classification system used, e.g., International Patent Classification (IPC), other classification (please indicate whether or not patent documents are classified by your Office and, if so, which classification is used)

In 2009, the 2010.10 version of the International Patent Classification was applied at the PPO. All documents were classified according to the updated versions of the advanced level.

Coordinate indexing (domestic deep indexing systems, keyword indexing)


Hybrid system indexing


Bibliographic data and full-text processing

-Full-text patent and utility model documents together with abstracts are uploaded for search purposes to the modality data bases.
-PDFs of the full-text PL patent, PL utility model and EP validation documents are uploaded to the Publication Server (it should be noted that either XMLs containing basic bibliographic data, or archives containing both XMLs and full-text PDFs may be downloaded).
-Abstracts and full-text PDFs of PL documents are uploaded via Secure FTP to the EPO's esp@cenet search system on a monthly basis; translations into English of PL abstracts are continuously delivered to the Worldwide data base of esp@cenet.

IV. Search file establishment and upkeep

File building

In 2009, the increase of patent documentation was as follows:
-4 245 433 copies on CD-ROM and DVD (1 220 cassettes), including specifications of inventions, patent specifications and utility model specifications;
-31 titles of bibliographic and thematic databases within the scope of patents;
-on paper carrier 25 665 copies of Polish patent specifications and 1 076 copies of Polish utility models specifications;
-2 497 booklets of patent, technical and legal literature on paper;
-231 volumes of books - fulfilling the orders of PPO examiners.
- 3 630 pdf files of European patent specifications translated into Polish
Within patent documentation field, the PPO uses professional databases: "World Patent Index" (DWPI Derwent/Thomson) and "EMBASE".
The Office continued the process of disposing of some of its paper search files (domestic and foreign) to save space, in view of the extensive use of online searching in respect of the Office's patent holdings.

-Patents and utility models are available electronically, and may be searched on internal data bases. Published PL patent specifications may be accessed and searched via Publication Server; foreign patent literature may be searched via EPOQUENET.


In 2009, the PPO continued collecting, storing, and preparing patent and technical literature by:
-purchasing and introducing 231 volumes of books into the ZBILNI database;
-registering and providing access to 2 497 booklets of patent, technical and legal literature on paper.
Upkeep of search files is carried out centrally by administrative staff, in a process that includes comparing the search file contents with the electronic records.

Published patent and utility model applications on search systems are updated fortnightly.
Published patents and utility model on search systems are updated monthly.

Storage, including mass storage media

Mass storage media: hard disks, disk arrays, CD-ROMs, DVDs, paper (until complete replacement by the electronic storage).

V. Activities in the field of computerized and other mechanized search systems

In-house systems (online/offline)

-RegisterPlus based on Soprano and ePhoenix data base.
-The Office has also its own internal retrieval system (TULIPAN) with access restricted exclusively to examiners within the Office. The system offers procedural data concerning patents and utility models in the course of the whole procedure. The integrated data base is also maintained for searches on filing and granting procedures with regard to patents and utility models, supported by the fee control system.
-In co-operation with the EPO, the software for submitting applications online was integrated in the online system - eOLF, and also the set of tools for the electronic dossier management - e-Phoenix was implemented.
-Patent examiners may have access to CD-ROM/DVD collections containing the major collections of patent documents, like Espace family, GlobalPat, Cosmos etc. These collections are searched under MIMOSA software and are also available to public visitors at the Patent Library.

External databases

The PPO's examiners use regularly the external on-line retrieval resources:
EPOQUENET Suite; hosted by Elsevier Information Systems - the CrossFire Database Suite comprised of CrossFire Beilstein, CrossFire Gmelin and Patent Chemistry data bases.
As the Office web site is linked to many patent and non-patent online search facilities world-wide, our examiners access also National Office's web sites as necessary to search collections of patent documents, or to retrieve family member search and examination reports (e.g. EPO, USPTO, WIPO, JAPIO, DEPATIS, JAPIO, US Automated Patent Information, EPOline facilities (including EP Patent Register), esp@cenet, etc.

Administrative management systems (e.g., register, legal status, statistics and administrative support)

Installed and adopted to work together are ePhoenix (electronic storage and access to our patent and case files) and Soprano (work-flow) systems. Register and legal status information is then disseminated via RegisterPlus system - temporarily for the in-house purposes only.

Off-line systems provide information to examiners, lawyers and the accounting staff (payroll and finance-accounting system).

Equipment used (hardware, including the types of terminal and network used, and software), carriers used

-Completion of the virtualization servers and personal workstations based on the blade-type servers, running under VMware ESX Server, centrally administrated by the Virtual Centre Server. All, recently deployed servers were at once installed in the virtual environment. The virtualization software was upgraded to the newest version of vSphere. Concomitant with the task, the disk space for data within SAN disk-array subsystem was considerably increased.
-Workstations run under Windows XP environments, and server's operational systems are Microsoft Windows Server 2003, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 and Debian 5 GNU/Linux. The SAN mass storage network was configured in order to make disk-arrays available to the computing systems. All of workstations are secured by McAfee antivirus and antispam system. All network connections are based on CISCO and Alcatel equipment with 20 Mb access to the Internet.
-Server infrastructure for the Online Portal includes 9 application servers; 5 database servers; 10 TB build-up array; back-ups for Tivoli Storage Management, Fujitsu FI-5900C scanner, 125 packages for the purposes of qualified signatures. On-Line Portal servers are supported by local UPSs and they are also hooked to Main power supply unit for the PPO.
-Back office hardware located in secured/zoned Data Centre with fire alarm and CTV system, redundant air-conditioning and technical floor.
-Modernization of the software edge firewall. In 2009, a new version of ISA Firewall server was installed - the system responsible for the inside and outside our network traffic. In 2010, we are going to follow through the task and install upgraded version of Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway which has new jobs in protection and inspection of malicious software from infected systems.

Existing online thesauri; their structure, presentation and usefulness for computerized searches

Works aimed at publishing the Catchword Index for the regular use by examiners were continued.

VI. Administration of the industrial property office library, and information products and services available to the public (relating to facilities, e.g., for lodging applications, for assisting clients on searching procedures, for obtaining official publications and registry extracts)

Planning, administration, automation, security, buildings

Applications for patents and utility models can be made electronically, by post, by fax or in person at the Office's premises.
Much of internal information, like: pamphlets, manuals, law reports, magazines for circulations, circulars, regulations, forms etc. are anticipated to be available on the Intranet.
Both paper and electronic collections are located in our main building and are therefore secure.
Automation processes were continued with regard to paper holdings which are consequently digitized.
The public can visit the library and use dedicated workstations for searching patent and non-patent literature on paper and Internet and get assistance from qualified staff. The public may also use a collection of the CD-ROM data bases. To some extent the public is allowed to use the classified documentation of other countries.

Collecting, acquisitions, preparation

In 2009, in the field of organisation and upkeep of the files available to the Office's examiners and the public, the following documentation was included in the files:
- 4 245 433 copies of patent documents on CD-ROM and DVD containing abstracts of patent and utility model applications, from 20 countries and 2 international organisations;
-546 CD-ROM discs i.e. 28 titles of bibliographic and thematic databases;
- 1 564 abstracts published, not published or given a negative decision patent and utility model application.

Collection management, preservation

Patent documentation on paper carrier is stored in the storage rooms on movable bookshelves, in numerical and class arrangements, and are grouped seperately according to respective countries. Class collection is stored in special files, adjusted to this type of collection. Numerical collection is stored in bound volumes. The storage rooms meet all the requirements for collection's safety. Polish patent documents arranged according to the patent classification symbols are available in the general reading room, while foreign patent documentation in class arrangement is available in the examiners' reading room.
Collection of patent documents on CD-ROM and DVD is stored on special bookshelves adjusted to this type of collection. It is available in the reading room also to external users.

Interlibrary lending, resource sharing, networks of patent libraries in the country

Within the co-operation with the PATLIB centres in Poland, the Office continued supplying them with foreign and Polish patent documentation and literature. In 2009, the Office sent:
-744 discs with full text databases on CD-ROM
-74 discs with patent literature
-83 titles of patent bulletins
-1 818 copies of Polish industrial design and utility model specifications
-1 191 copies of first level Official Gazette
-693 copies of the second level Official Gazette
-43 copies of the "Official Journal of the PPO"
-43 copies of Index of the Official Journal for the year 2008
-43 copies of International Classification of Goods and Services, IX edition
-23 copies of 2008 Annual Report of the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland
- 39 copies of "Consolidated Texts of Implementing Acts to the Industrial Property Law. Legal Status of 15.09.2009"

Information services available to the public (including computerized services and search files contained in libraries remote from your Office and patent information posted by your Office on the World Wide Web)

The Office continues to offer its services via Online Services Portal at: .
Previous and current versions of the latest IPC edition in Polish language are continually offered at:
Polish patent and utility model information within Polish language version of esp@cenet is systematically expanded, and the Office's website is linked into the EPO esp@cenet search facility.
Within the services rendered to the users in 2009 the following were made accessible:
- 24 600 retrievals on the patent and trademark databases on CD-ROM for 3 486 outside users;
-1 200 files with foreign patent documentation were available for examiners and 1 156 for outside users as well as 9 927 copies of single Polish and foreign patent specifications, 727 volumes of books and 329 booklets. Free access to Polish and world patent documentation was also provided. A significant drop in the number of information requests on paper carrier results from easier access to online data bases, including those in the EPOQUE system for examiners and other free of charge databases.

URLs of web pages of the Office's website for electronic filing of patent applications

URLs of web pages of the Office’s website that provide information on business procedures such as: filing, publication, examination and grant procedures related to patents; opposition and appeal procedures related to patents; etc.

Information on filings, post-grant procedure, opposition and appeal procedures, etc. are in details described within specific sections of our web site which is also linked to our search services and data bases. - continues at: (Online Services Portal).
Variety of guides and other information materials are offered in PDF format through the Office's web site.

URLs of web pages of the Office’s website that provide a description of information products and services offered by the Office (e.g., patent search service(s) and patent databases), as well as information on how to access and utilize them

Description of information products and services is announced in relevant parts of Office's web site, and users are then directed to Office's services where the description continues, either in editorial part, or in help files. See also information directly above.

VII. Matters concerning mutual exchange of patent documentation and information

International or regional cooperation in the exchange of machine-readable information, e.g., bibliographic data, abstract and/or full text information

The Office provides several patent offices and organizations with its bibliographic data and abstracts in the flat text machine-readable format, and also xml format. Full-text information is provided in PDF fully searchable format. Electronic filings submitted to the PPO under EP and WO procedures are transferred to the EPO and WIPO respectively.

Medium used for exchange of priority documents


Medium allowed for filing applications

Although filing is mainly in paper form, the Office has online filing facilities for applications which allow patent and utility model applications to be filed electronically.

VIII. Other relevant matters concerning education and training in, and promotion of, the use of patent information, including technical assistance to developing countries (please indicate URLs of web pages of the Office’s website wherever appropriate)

Training courses for national and foreign participants, use of audiovisual means

In 2009, the PPO participated in trainings and conferences organised by the European Patent Office (22 people). The events focused on issues, such as: Patent procedures and automation tools, Search matters, EPOQUEnet functionalities and use, E-learning concepts, Asian patent information, Strategic use of IP information, IP and innovation management.
Every year, the Polish Patent Office organises trainings to raise professional skills of its staff.
In 2009, after completing two-year training, 15 Office's employees obtained examiner's qualifications and 23 employees, who completed their training and passed the qualifying examinations, obtained assistant examiner's qualifications.
Additionally, language courses for PPO employees (languages: English, French, German, Spanish, Italian) were organised.
Within the framework of the training program for assistant examiners, and for newly recruited civil service members, 5 lectures for 150 participants were given on industrial property law and responsibilities of the PPO.
Moreover, staff members benefited from many specialist training courses organised by professional educational centres such as: National School of Public Administration, Institute of Accountancy and Taxes, Mazovian Voivodeship Centre for Personnel Trainingn to name a few. The subject matter of the trainings included the issues of public procurement, administrative proceedings management, finances, information technologies and labour law.

Assistance to developing countries (sending consultants and experts, receiving trainees from developing countries, etc.)


Promotional activities (seminars, exhibitions, visits, advertising, etc.)

In 2009, within industrial property protection the PPO organised or participated in the following events:
- Conference "Computer Programmes and Patent Law and Copyright" organized in Warsaw by the Patent Office in cooperation with Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications.
- 16th Exhibition of Inventions awarded at international exhibitions in 2008 in the Museum of Technology in Warsaw (the PPO's informational - promotional stand);
- Conference "Women's Economic Development,Creativity and Innovativeness" organized in Warsaw by the Patent Office in cooperation, with WIPO, among others;
- International Conference of users and producers of patent information PATLIB 2009 in Sofia;
-18th International Conference "European Round-Table on Patent Practice (EUROTAB) in Warsaw;
-Inter-regional Symposium on Teaching Intellectual Property in Universities in Countries in Transition
-5th International Symposium "Industrial Property in Innovative Economy"
- Annual "Scientific Picnic" of the Bis Radio in Warsaw (promotional stand);
- International Fairs in Poznan (promotional stand);
- 9th National Educational Forum for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Warsaw entitled "Support for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises at the Time of Economic Slow Down" organized under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy (promotional stand);
- II International Warsaw Invention and Innovation Show organised by Management of Warsaw Fairs and Association of Polish Inventors and Rationalisers (informational - promotional stand);
- XVII International Exhibition of Defence Industry in Kielce (informational - promotional stand);
- Innovation Fairs in Małopolskie Region for Business held in Kraków (informational - promotional stand);
- VIII Cooperation Fair of New Technologies of Swietokrzyskie- ecoINNOVATIONS" (informational - promotional stand);
- Fairs of Industrial Technology, Science and Innovation "Technicon Innovations 2009" in Gdansk (informational - promotional stand);
- 14th Scientific Conference on "Patent Information for Science and Industry" and workshops "Enforcement of IP Rights and Counteracting Piracy" organized for PATLIB centers in Swider/Warsaw;
- Annual Conference "EPOPIC" organised by EPO in Biarritz - France, (informational - promotional stand);
- Ceremony of prize award in the 7th edition of the competition for the best artistic poster as well as postdoctoral, doctoral, master's and student's theses on the subject of industrial property organized by the Patent Office.

Within the scope of promotional activities the Polish Patent Office took part in the IPeuropAware project which is part of the EU Framework Programme "Competitiveness and Innovation - 2007-2013". The following promotional activities, to name a few, were completed:
-information about Poland's IP was available online on the project's site:,
-two seminars entitled "How to Protect Intellectual and Industrial Property" promoting the project, were held in Bydgoszcz and Bialystok.
-Signposting directory was developed in English, including contact data of entities in the scope of intellectual property.
-a brochure was prepared promoting the project in the number of 500 copies for distribution among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
In the scope of advertising activities in cooperation with OHIM, EPO and Polish Chamber of Commerce, the Office published a set of brochures entitled: "Searching for technologies in patent database", "Inventions on operations of small and medium-sized enterprises", "Inventor's guide: national, European and international application procedures", to name a few.

Studies to identify trends in new technology, e.g., by the use of patent statistics and preparation of monographs


Assistance furnished by offices to facilitate the changing over of receiving offices to electronic data carriers for the exchange of patent documents (see also fourth sub-item of item VI, above)


IX. Other general information related to the Office that is available on the Internet -- URLs of web pages of the Office’s website that:

provide information on legislation related to patents


contain the Annual Report of the Office

Annual Reports (the content has both EN and PL versions): (Annual Reports).

if necessary, provide further information related to the topics referred to in the current ATR


provide open source codes related to patent information systems


contain patent-related news regarding the Office (News)

X. Other relevant matters

In 2009, the incident and assistance managing system to users of our IT system was effectively carried out by the ServiceDesk solution - consistent with the ITIL practice.
The Office's Call Centre is under reconstruction in order to handle questions in a more complex manner.
As we use EPO's EPTOS, the efforts were made in 2009 to launch the identical version of the EPTOS set. Its test, maintenance and production versions were repeatedly upgraded what resulted in launching the homogeneous Polish version of EPTOS ver. 6.04.

1.Classification is allotting one or more classification symbols (e.g., IPC symbols) to a patent application, either before or during search and examination, which symbols are then published with the patent application.

2.Preclassification is allotting an initial broad classification symbol (e.g., IPC class or subclass, or administrative unit) to a patent application, using human or automated means for internal administrative purposes (e.g., routing an application to the appropriate examiner).  Usually preclassification is applied by the administration of an office.

3.Reclassification is the reconsideration and usually the replacement of one or more previously allotted classification symbols to a patent document, following a revision and the entry into force of a new version of the Classification system (e.g., the IPC).  The new symbols are available on patent databases.