Annual Technical Report 2004 on Patent Information Activities submitted by Russian Federation (SCIT/ATR/PI/2004/RU)

Where URLs are requested below, it is preferred that either URLs which are likely to remain stable over time (three years or more) are provided, or home (main) page URLs are provided with a short explanation of how to access the corresponding information.

The term "patent" covers utility models and Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs). Offices which issue design patents should report their design patent information activities in their Annual Technical Reports on Industrial Design Information Activities.

I. Evolution of patent activities

Changes experienced in terms of application filings and grants with respect to the previous year

In 2004, procedures for the filing of Russian Federation (RF) patent applications for inventions and methods of examination remained unchanged.

Trends or areas experiencing rapid changes with respect to the previous year


Table 1 (attached) shows the data for 2003-2004 for the filing of Russian Federation patent applications for inventions by national and foreign applicants.

The largest number of applications for inventions by Russian applicants was filed under Section A of the International Patent Classification (IPC) — Human Necessities, and by foreign applicants under Section C — Chemistry and Metallurgy.

The least popular among both Russian and foreign applicants was Section D — Textiles and Paper. The number of applications filed under this Section in 2004 was less than one per cent of the overall number of applications for inventions received.

Utility Models

In comparison with 2003, the growth in the overall number of applications for utility models filed in 2004 of approximately 17.4 per cent should be noted. There was a significant increase (35.14 per cent) in the number of applications filed by foreign applicants.

The leading section of the IPC in the past year was Section B — Performing Operations and Transporting, and Section A — Human Necessities. The most dynamic growth was seen in Section F — Mechanical Engineering; Lighting; Heating; Weapons; Blasting (6.8 per cent). The lowest number of applications was again filed for Section D — Textiles and Paper, which was the least numerous in terms of the number of certificates issued, and also for Section C — Chemistry and Metallurgy.

See Table 2 attached.


II. Matters concerning the generation, reproduction, distribution and use of primary and secondary sources of patent information

Publishing, printing, copying (main types of publications of the office in the field of patent information, etc.)

In the course of 2004, Rospatent issued 54,665 invention-related publications in its official gazettes, of which: 23,111 patent claims; 31,554 application claims; 1,701 claims of previously unpublished inventions; 7,933 utility model claims

All information published in official Rospatent paper editions is also issued on CD-ROM and DVD optical disks, and is available on the Internet.

Table 3 shows the change in the number of orders for full annual sets of descriptions of inventions, both on paper and on CD- ROM. The table shows that in the past year the number of orders for this information on CD-ROM has increased by 29 per cent, compared with the previous year.

See Table 3 attached.

In addition to subscribing to current acquisitions, it is possible to order retrospective information files on inventions.


Main types of announcements of the Office in the field of patent information

In 2004, official publications included the following titles:

 Inventions and Utility Models Gazette - 36 issues;
 Patent specifications: - 23,111 descriptions;
 Title pages of utility model descriptions – 7,933 pages;
 Annual index to Inventions and Utility Models Gazette (five volumes);
 CD-ROM optical disks – 12 disks with full descriptions of inventions for Russian Federation patents;
 CD-ROM optical disks – four disks with abstracts of descriptions of inventions in Russian and English, invention claims for patent applications and utility model claims.

Mass storage media used (paper, microforms, optical storage, etc.)

Data on inventions and utility models are systematized and thoroughly checked in technical databases.

Data are also stored on paper media. A significant portion of the information received and issued in recent years is also stored on optical disks. Archive information which is not part of the PCT minimum documentation is also stored on microforms.

CD-ROM and DVD optical disks have become more widely used.

Word processing and office automation

In 2004, work was completed on creating an electronic archive of application materials, including electronic files of applications for inventions and utility models received in the Office from 1996 onwards.

The electronic files of applications contain primary materials, including the application for the grant of a patent, the description of the invention, the claims in RTF and DOC formats, and drawings in TIF format. The use of electronic archive data presupposes the introduction of electronic document management system elements with subsequent transition to the processing of documents exclusively in electronic form.

Archiving software has been developed on an RM 600 base with the SOLARIS operating system and the UniVerse DBMS, and is at the stage of being introduced.

In 2004, the MIMOSA software was upgraded to a new version (MIMOSA-v.4.3), which offers greater possibilities for creating queries, conducting a search and viewing selected documents.

(New) techniques used for the generation of patent information (printing, recording, photocomposing, etc.)

The automated system for preparing publications facilitates fully automatic production of mock-ups of formatted editions, by using computer technology with fast, high-definition scanning and printing peripherals.

The following technical equipment, which allows ready printed items to be produced in the form of printed editions and facsimile (photo) copies, is used for printing and production (reproduction) preparation purposes in relation to secondary patent information sources:

- equipment for printing processes;
- equipment for producing (printing) patent information in facsimile form;
- equipment for microfilming and printing of microfilms (microfiches).

III. Matters concerning abstracting, classifying, reclassifying and indexing of technical information contained in patent documents

Abstracting, reviewing, translating

In 2004, abstracts continued to be published for Russian Federation patents granted:

 in Russian, as part of full texts of patent documents on paper and CD-ROM;
 in English, as part of CD-ROMs with full texts of patent documents;
 in Russian and English, on CD-ROMs containing only abstracts.

Abstract-related information for Rospatent patent documents is also available on the Internet:

- RUABRU - a free abstract database for inventions in Russian; containing, as at January 1, 2005, information on 489,000 patent applications and patents for inventions from 1994 to 2004 inclusive;

- RUABEN - a free abstract database for inventions in English, containing, as at January 1, 2005, information on 276,000 patent applications and patents for inventions from 1994 to 2004 inclusive;

The abstracts database is updated monthly.

In 2004, the Information and Publications Center of Rospatent continued to issue the Russian edition of Inventions of Countries of the World containing abstracts for inventions from WIPO, EPO, France, Germany, Japan, Russian Federation, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States of America published in 2003 in the official gazettes of the offices.

In 2004, 1,644 thematic publications were prepared and distributed in the paper edition of Inventions of Countries of the World, which was also published on machine-readable carriers (optical disks and diskettes); ten full sets of the publication and 603 individual subject-based publications were produced on diskettes and CD-ROMs.

Classification and reclassification activities; Classification system used, e.g., International Patent Classification (IPC), other classification (please indicate whether or not patent documents are classified by your Office and, if so, which classification is used)

The International Patent Classification (IPC) was used in the Rospatent system.

IPC-7 is used for the publication of patent documents.

Rospatent participated in the preparation of the reformed IPC-2006 as part of the IPC Revision Working Group and the Committee of Experts.

In 2004, the following were prepared and sent to WIPO:

- comments on a draft for revision of C428 (E01D), C429, (G01G), С430 (A62D), С431 (D21H);
- comments and proposals on drafts of definitions of D021 (A61K), D025 (C07F), D027 (G01M), D037 (C07J), D048 (H04B), D050 (G01B), D046 (G02C), D036 (C04B), D002 (C07C), D039 (C12N), D056 (C07D);
- proposals on residual groups (R-705);
- data on the IPC-8 and IPC-7 cross-reference table.

Rospatent produced the electronic Russian-language version of the reformed IPC according to the amendments approved by the 34th and 35th sessions of the Committee of Experts, as well as the Russian-language version of the Introduction to IPC-2006.

Lists for the reclassification of the national collection of descriptions, according to the classes subject to amendment, were produced.

Software for the transfer of data on patent documents according to IPC-7 into the IPC advanced level format was produced in accordance with the WIPO standards ST.8 and ST.10.

Hybrid system indexing

Federal Institute of Industrial Property (FIPS) experts provide full hybrid system indexes for national patent documents on all publications (abstracts, descriptions for applications and patents, as well as utility model certificates).

Recommendations for the automated reclassification of national descriptions with indexes for the hybrid systems were produced.

Bibliographic data and full-text processing for search purposes

The software used for text processing (input, recognition, formatting) of primary materials is based on the system of optical recognition of symbols, and a Microsoft Word text processor is also used.

In 2004, work continued on inputting full-text documents of applications for inventions and utility models into the Rospatent database.

All applications for inventions and utility models received by the Office in 2004 were fully converted into electronic form.

IV. Search file establishment and upkeep

File building

The structure and composition of the State Patent Examination Collection (SPEC) are determined by its purpose and established on the basis of the tasks it performs. The composition of the SPEC is regulated by Rule 34 of the Regulations under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT).

In its composition, the SPEC includes a collection of domestic and foreign patent documentation organized according to the IPC, and a collection of patent law, scientific and technical, and lexical-reference literature.

In structural terms, the SPEC consists of current and retrospective portions of collections of national and foreign patent documentation, and also a collection of patent-related literature, including scientific and technical literature in the form of books and periodicals. SPEC patent documentation is arranged according to IPC groups, within headings by country, within countries by year of publication, and thereafter in numerical order.

SPEC national patent documentation includes descriptions of inventions of the USSR (from 1924 onwards), descriptions of inventions and utility models (applications, patents and Russian Federation certificates), and the official gazettes of the USSR and Russian Federation. National patent documentation is compiled in separate collections (documentation of the USSR, Russian Federation and the collection of descriptions for Russian Federation utility models).


The current portion of the collection is updated annually both for national and foreign patent documentation. In 2004, 497,900 copies of descriptions, including 446,400 copies of foreign descriptions and 51,400 copies of national descriptions were added to the SPEC. In addition, 1,415,400 copies of patent documents were received on optical disks.

In 2004, the databases containing a retrospective collection of national inventions for the years 1924 to 1993 were published on DVD-ROM disks. The collection is made up of 86 disks.

Storage, including mass storage media

The of storage conditions for the collections are determined largely by the type of information carrier: patent documentation on paper is stored in cases on shelves and on CD-ROM in catalog racks.

Documentation from other offices maintained and/or considered part of the available search file

As of January 1, 2005, the SPEC contained 18.4 million patent documents on paper from Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Russian Federation and USSR, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, as well as WIPO, EPO, EAPO, and also patent documentation from CIS countries.

New additions of patent documents from CIS countries in 2004 were databases on disk from the patent offices of Belarus (full texts) and Uzbekistan (official gazette).

Also added was the “” database with bibliographical data and abstracts of protected publications for 2003 from the USA for 2004.

V. Activities in the field of computerized and other mechanized search systems

In-house systems (online/offline)

Rospatent uses databases containing national patent information on CD-ROM optical disks, issued since 1994, and also databases provided through the Internet, which include information published previously on the CD-ROMs in question.

A foreign patent collection on CD-ROM has been created for and is widely used by Rospatent examiners. By the end of 2004, the Institute’s CD-ROM collection contained 117 databases, stored on 17,243 disks (CD-ROMs and DVDs), with information from 32 countries and four international organizations. In order to overcome the language barrier, the PROMT machine translation system was introduced. Additionally, the automated dictionaries Lingvo and Multilex are available in the CD-ROM room for the examiners.

External databases

In 2004, Federal Institute of Industrial Property (FIPS) examiners had access to more than 200 patent and non-patent databases for online searches. The public patent databases available on the Internet most widely used by the examiners were those from Rospatent, EPO (Esp@cenet), the US Patent Office, the Japanese Patent Office, the German Patent Office (Depatisnet) and WIPO. The most frequently used, freely accessible databases containing non-patent literature are the USA national library PubMed database for medicine and the ChemWeb database for chemistry.

In 2004, an agreement was concluded with the Eurasian Patent Office (EAPO) for giving examiners access to the EAPO EAPATIS in-house search system which includes, in addition to the PCT minimum documentation, documents from Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Turkmenistan.

Additionally, examiners have access to the following commercial databases:

- over 200 databases provided by the STN International network
- patent databases of the Delphion network (including the Derwent World Patent Index)
- Japanese patent documents database in English: Patolis-e.

As part of bilateral cooperation with the European Patent Office (EPO), Institute examiners have free direct access to part of the EPO EPOQUE in-house search system. In 2004, the transition of this system to the new version was completed, giving an improved interface and enhanced search possibilities.

Administrative management systems (e.g., register, legal status, statistics, administrative support, etc.)

In the automated databank (ADB) system for prosecuting applications for inventions, utility models and industrial designs, work was completed on converting the information system programs and data from the PICK DBMS into another type of basic DBMS - UniVerse. As a result, system reliability improved, the number of users increased to 500, there was an exponential increase in system productivity, and the prerequisites were put in place for using up-to-date means of information exchange with Microsoft applications and for creating a graphic user interface using Internet technology. A basis was established for introducing electronic document management system components.

The FIPS automated databank contains information on 1,200,590 applications for inventions, utility models and industrial designs, as well as approximately 417,173 documents providing protection.

Equipment used (hardware, including the types of terminal and network used, and software), carriers used

 RM600-E80 Server
(OM – 1GB, processors – 3, external memory – 360 GB, VT320 Display – 100 units)
 Compaq Proliant 3000 Server
(OM – 128 MB, processors – 1, external memory – 36 GB)
 Compaq Proliant 5000 Server
(OM – 256 MB, processors – 2, external memory – 38 GB)
 Compaq Proliant 6000 Server
(OM – 128 MB, processors – 4, external memory – 70 GB)
 Compaq Proliant 2500 Server
(OM – 32 MB, processors – 1, external memory – 8 GB)
 Compaq Proliant 2500 Server
(OM – 128 MB, processors – 1, external memory – 12 GB)
 Compaq Proliant 2500 Server
(OM - 128 MB, processors – 1, external memory – 9 GB)
- Compaq DL380 server – 16 units
(OM – 2 GB, processors – 2, external memory – 200 GB)
- Compaq DL580 server – 4 units
(OM – 8 GB, processors – 4, external memory – 300 GB)

Compaq 586, P MMX, PII, PIII Fujitsu-Siemens workstations – 855 units.

Switching equipment:

Equipment for lines ISDN MAX 200Plus c (8/4) WAN PCMCIA
TypeII/TypeI; SmartSWITCH 6000; 3Com CoreBuilder 3500


SINIX, Novell, Windows95, Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Windows XP operating systems.

Carriers used:

DLTtape III, DLTtape IV and SDLT magnetic tapes.

VI. Administration of the industrial property office library and services available to the public (relating to facilities, e.g., for lodging applications, for assisting clients on searching procedures, for obtaining official publications and registry extracts)

Planning, administration, automation, security, buildings

The FIPS All-Russian Patent Technology Library (VPTB) forms part of the system of the Federal Service of Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks as a division of FIPS and provides access to the Central Patent Collection (CPC) for a wide circle of information users in Russia, and neighboring and other foreign countries (including State experts).

The overall area designated for CPC storage and reading rooms serving a wide circle of users is about 6000 m2.

These premises are equipped with an alarm system and an automatic fire-fighting system.

In the VPTB, an information search system is in operation.

Collecting, acquisitions, preparation

The Central Patent Collection includes, inter alia, national (from 1814) and foreign patent documentation from all countries carrying out an international exchange with the Russian Patent Office. As of January 1, 2005, taking into account the reorganization of the structure of the Collection, which has been carried out, Library patent documentation contains around 80 million copies of patent documents in various formats.

In 2004, further growth was observed in the acquisition of patent documentation on CD-ROM. Over the year, 7.5 million copies of patent documents were received, and submissions on paper practically ceased.

As of the end of 2004, the CPC contained more than 33.4 million copies of full descriptions of inventions for applications, patents, utility models, and official and abstract publications of patent offices for all industrial property subject matter on optical disks.

Collection management, preservation

The Library collections are arranged along geographical-systematic-numerical lines. The conditions for storing the collections are determined primarily by the type of format:

The conditions for storing collections correspond to the different formats used:

 patent documentation on paper is stored in cases on shelves;
 on microcarriers – in metal boxes in files-film libraries (microfilm) and in metal cupboards (microfiches);
 in automated databases;
 on optical disks (CD-ROMs), in special cabinets.

Interlibrary lending, resource sharing, networks of patent libraries in the country

In 2004, State patent information resources were stored in the collections of the:

 Federal Service of Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks;
 intersectoral territorial scientific and technical information centers (STICs);
 libraries (national libraries of subjects of the Russian Federation, regional universal scientific libraries – RUSLs).

Information services available to the public (including computerized services and search files contained in libraries remote from your Office and patent information posted by your Office on the World Wide Web)

The VPTB Division’s overall readership stands at more than 13,500. In 2004, around 2,400 people registered with the Library and in the past year more than 115,000 readers visited the library, to whom around 40 million copies of patent documents were issued, including around 13 million copies on paper; about 22,000 copies on microcarriers, and more than 26 million copies on optical disks.

General and specialized reading rooms operate in the VPTB Division for the comfort of readers who wish to work. These rooms provide:

- patent documentation from the countries of the Asia-Pacific region;
- patent documentation on microcarriers;
- an information-bibliography service;
- industrial designs;
- databases on optical disks.

Visits to the Library and service for all categories of users are free of charge. In addition to conventional forms of service, in 2004 access for readers to automated databases in the VPTB Division was extended and improved. One hundred and eighty-four databases are currently fully installed and in use, including 177 on CD-ROM.

Service for internal users as part of the selection and distribution of information (SDI) system continued. In 2004, 22 SDI subscribers were served and received monthly information on matters relating to the legal protection of industrial property. The overall volume of bibliographical data, available to users, was around 22,000 information units, including around 16,000 such units which were sent by electronic mail.

In order to expand the scope of the patent-information service provided by the VPTB Division, a whole range of fee-paying information services are on offer including a thematic selection of patent documentation, a search by systematic indexes, a search in automated databases, a search for patent-analogs, and others representing more than 30 designated services. Services are provided directly in the Library, at the request of readers, and also to remote users of patent information.

In 2004, the FIPS VPTB Division satisfied around 22,000 information requests from users, including 640,000 pages of copies of patent documentation which were produced.

Around 1,000 remote users of patent information subscribe to the VPTB.

Through the Internet (, Rospatent provides databases containing Russian patent information, including descriptions of inventions and abstracts in English.

On the basis of official information concerning inventions and utility models, databases are produced in accordance with users’ special orders.

VII. Matters concerning mutual exchange of patent documentation and information

International or regional cooperation in the exchange of machine-readable information, e.g., bibliographic data, abstract and/or full text information

The FIPS VPTB Division currently receives an exchange of documentation from 58 countries, six international organizations and the information firm Derwent. The exchange of patent documentation with Algeria and Cyprus was stopped.

The volumes of acquisitions of foreign descriptions are determined above all by the scales of activity of national patent offices and international organizations. Leading positions in this area are occupied by Germany, Japan and the United States of America, as well as the EPO and WIPO.

In 2004, as part of the international exchange the VPTB Division received 6,062,900 copies of foreign patent documents and sent to foreign patent offices 1,713,800 copies of national descriptions of inventions.

Medium used for exchange of priority documents

The exchange of patent documentation on various media (paper, microfiches, optical disks) continued in 2004, as did the active replacement of all other types of information carriers with optical disks:

In 2004, the following were received from patent offices in foreign countries:

 15 annual sets of invention descriptions on paper;
 129 annual sets of descriptions on optical disks.

The following were sent to patent offices in foreign countries:

 66 annual sets of invention descriptions on optical disks.
 61 sets of the official gazette Inventions and Utility Models on paper.

Medium allowed for filing applications

In 2004 paper media were used for the filing of applications with Rospatent under the national procedure. For international applications, Rule 92.4 of the Regulations Under the PCT permits the use of telegraph, teleprinter and facsimile, provided that the original paper carrier is furnished within 14 days of the date of transmission. In 2004 work continued on receiving applications on electronic media (as a third copy), 2,221 applications were received, and additional material was received on electronic media as a third copy for 1,845 applications.

In the course of 2004, 69 applications were filed using the PCT-SAFE system for the electronic transmission of international applications, constituting 13 per cent of the overall number of applications filed.

In 2004, cooperation with WIPO related to the IMPACT system for the electronic transmission of documents to create files for international applications which had entered the national phase in the Russian Federation. It was thus possible to refrain entirely from receiving paper documents from the International Bureau of WIPO.

Implementation of the Statement of Principles Concerning the Changeover to Electronic Data Carriers for the Exchange of Patent Documents (please provide a status report on the extent to which your Office has changed over to electronic data carriers for the exchange of patent documents)

In 2004, the MIMOSA software was upgraded to a new version (MIMOSA - v.4.3) which offers improved querying, search and document consultation possibilities.

In 2004, Internet access to the information-search system for national patent documentation was implemented and included the following databases:

 full-text database of Russian inventions (contains information on more than 276,000 patents from 1994 to 2004 inclusive);
 retrospective database of Russian patent documents in facsimile form (contains information on 1,433,000 patent documents from 1924 to 1993 inclusive);
 abstract database of Russian inventions (contains information on more than 489,000 applications and patents for inventions from 1994 to 2004 inclusive);
 abstract database of Russian inventions in English (contains information on 276,000 patents for inventions from 1994 to 2004 inclusive);
 abstract database for Russian utility models (contains information on 42,000 Russian utility model certificates from 1996 to 2004 inclusive).

VIII. Other relevant matters concerning education and training in, and promotion of, the use of patent information, including technical assistance to developing countries

Training courses for national and foreign participants, use of audiovisual means

In 2004, two distance-learning sessions were held. Consultancy services in the sessions were provided by eight teachers from among Rospatent specialists. In 2004, a total of 1951 participants registered for training, of whom 1011 successfully completed the course and received the Certificate of the WIPO Worldwide Academy (WA).

Compared with 2003, when access to the WIPO WA training course for all Russian speakers was granted for the first time, the number of registrations for distance learning increased by 345 in 2004, which demonstrates the growing interest in intellectual property matters.

In 2004, training was provided for 227 patenting specialists and entrepreneurs under the program entitled “the enforcement of rights in intellectual property subject matter, taking into account the amendments made to the legislation of the Russian Federation”, “Licensing-agreement relations” and “Patenting of industrial property subject matter abroad”; internships were organized under individual programs for eight specialists from patent offices of CIS countries.

As a method-based center, the FIPS VPTB Division works to provide method-related assistance for the Central Scientific and Technical Institute, Russian libraries assembling patent documentation and also other interested organizations.

Consultations were held on a permanent basis for specialists in the field of patent information from the regions of the Russian Federation, CIS countries and the Baltic States. In 2004, employees of the Division participated in and gave papers at the regional conference on intellectual property matters in Kaliningrad.

For students of Moscow institutes of higher education (290 people), 20 excursions and practical training sessions on patent documentation were held. Regular training on work with patent documentation on optical disk was organized free of charge for a wide circle of users (27 practical training sessions were held).

Part of the Rospatent system is the Russian State Institute of Intellectual Property (RGIIS) where, in 2004, over 500 students trained in various forms of study (day, evening, correspondence, second degree), as well as over 210 postgraduates. Each year over 200 specialists improve their qualifications and undergo professional retraining in intellectual property.

The Institute has postgraduates in three areas of specialization: “Civil Law, Family Law, International Law”, “Economics and Management of the National Economy”, “Sociology of Management”. In 2004, 41 dissertations were defended: 27 for a Masters of Law, eight in Economics and six in Sociology.

Promotional activities (seminars, exhibitions, visits, advertising, etc.)

In 2004, Rospatent, with the participation of representatives of international organizations and other States, organized 17 conferences, forums and seminars, and six shows and exhibitions, promulgating the results of scientific research and normative-methodological activity in the theory and practice of intellectual property protection, promoting the exchange of experience with national and foreign specialists, and providing familiarization with the latest changes in international and national legislation in this field.

In 2004, in the regions of the Russian Federation, 30 conferences and seminars on intellectual property problems were organized and held: six in the Central Federal District, 11 in the Northwestern Federal District, two in the Urals Federal District, one in the Southern Federal District, two in the Siberian Federal District, and one in the Far Eastern Federal District.

For the purposes of publicizing invention-related activities and devising measures for the moral stimulation of inventors, in 2004 Rospatent participated as one of the organizers in the following international inventions exhibitions: the Fourth International Exhibition of Innovations and Investment (in Moscow), the 95th International Inventions Exhibition “Lépine Competition” (in Paris, France), the Seventh International Industrial Property Exhibition “Archimedes-2004” (in Moscow).

IX. Other relevant matters


1.Classification is allotting one or more classification symbols (e.g., IPC symbols) to a patent application, either before or during search and examination, which symbols are then published with the patent application.


2.Preclassification is allotting an initial broad classification symbol (e.g., IPC class or subclass, or administrative unit) to a patent application, using human or automated means for internal administrative purposes (e.g., routing an application to the appropriate examiner).  Usually preclassification is applied by the administration of an office.


3.Reclassification is the reconsideration and usually the replacement of one or more previously allotted classification symbols to a patent document, following a revision and the entry into force of a new version of the Classification system (e.g., the IPC).  The new symbols are available on patent databases.