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Annual Technical Report on Patent Information Activities in 2017 submitted by Rospatent

I. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PATENT INFORMATION ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY THE OFFICE

Outline of main policies and plans aimed at development of patent information activities and expected time frames for their realization

In 2017, as in previous years, the FIPS IT services were mainly being developed in the following areas:

- development of services to improve the convenience and quality of work for examiners and other services of the Institute;

- increase of the infrastructure reliability and security of the local computer network and Internet services;

- replenishment of the databases of Rospatent search systems, usability increase of search tools for examiners of Rospatent, as well as for the whole community of inventors, experts in the patent field and interested persons;

- ensuring the applicability and continuity of public services.

 In 2017 a new subdivision, i.e. Novosibirsk FIPS branch office, was connected to all services of Rospatent information systems. The branch office staff was provided with IP-telephone communication with the integration into Rospatent ATS number plan and videoconferencing.

In 2017 the works continued on improvement of the quality of electronic documents and data generated in the "Data Preparation Center" (DPC) system in the course of documents conversion from paper to electronic form for further use in the workflow systems. For the purpose of efficient distribution of work between operators, the Priority Register with page counting was developed to improve the control of bibliographic data input and their quality, a search mode was also implemented for working with bibliography, and the input from the clipboard at the input stage was blocked. The input data quality control was provided by means of highlighting all errors at the data verification stage.

On the site of Rospatent, the goals, objectives and plans of the Federal Service for Intellectual Property are published in the section "Plans":

http://www.rupto.ru/ru/about/plans.

New projects launched or resumed this year in the context of the policies and plans mentioned above, short description: aims, partners, tasks


In order to enable electronic record-keeping during the provision of State services, the following work was undertaken at the Federal Institute of Industrial Property (hereinafter referred to as FIPS) in 2017:


-  operability and fitness for purpose of FIPS information systems and resources was ensured, including the Electronic State Registers for Inventions and Utility Models (hereinafter referred to as EGR).


-  a system for official Internet publication of information on intellectual property subject matter from the EGR was implemented and trialed.


-  examiner’s departments were re-deployed to the preparation of electronic correspondence and electronic signing thereof in the automated information system of paperless prosecution of invention examinations.


- In 2017, the operation of the "PPS" ASBBD system was continued to ensure the management of court decisions. The department of legal representation was given the opportunity to conduct office work electronically, and the ability to make entries in all State Registers directly from the records management system.


-  Operation continued of the PCT Electronic Applications Library automated system


- The automation of technological processes in the system of invention examination electronic workflow (AS EA) in 2017 made it possible to:


- withdraw in case of communication through the personal account (PA) of the FIPS website, from printing and sending communications to applicants in respect of applications for inventions and utility models on paper;


- ensure in the Novosibirsk FIPS branch-office the consideration of applications for inventions and utility models in electronic form without using application paper files.


- The integration of the workflow system with PatSearch data retrieval system ensured the use of search results obtained by examiners in the preparation of search reports in the AS EA system, significantly reducing the labor costs of patent examiners.


- New workplaces for the staff of the Patent Fee Accounting Department in the AS EA system have been set up to consider applications received electronically without involving paper files and to interact with the examiners of sectoral examination departments in electronic form.


- In December 2017 a possibility was provided to upload for publication the results of classification by the indices of the Cooperative Patent Classification.


-  Operation continued of an automated paperless prosecution system for examining applications to amend entries in the registers for inventions and utility models (including extending and renewing the validity of a patent) (Patent Prosecution).


The transition to paperless prosecution has had a positive influence on the work of expert staff and interaction between subdivisions involved in registration activities. The transition to electronic prosecution has seen a gradual decline in the use of paper-based information, a reduction in the time taken to process documents and search for required information, thereby leading ultimately to increased productivity and better public awareness of patent rights and amendments thereto, as well as the status of patent documents.


In 2017, the State Register of Russian Federation Inventions (EGR IZ) and the State Register of Russian Federation Utility Models (EGR PM) records continued to be completed. As of the end of 2017, the registers contained:


- EGR IZ: 270,137 patents;


- EGR PM: 78,881 patents.


In order to ensure the completeness of foreign documentation submitted and uploaded onto the PatSearch system, incoming documentation is constantly monitored. As gaps are detected in the arrays of documentation, a request is sent promptly to the relevant foreign patent office; receipt of data is constantly being monitored.


            During 2017, work was carried out on populating data; after formal verification fitness for purpose, completeness, and compliance with specifications on the website, some errors were identified. After verifying downloaded data during 2017, errors were detected in the arrays of Australia, China, Republic of Korea (251382 documents). All errors were corrected by re-uploading the data. As part of the previously signed agreements with foreign offices on data exchange and other written agreements, work is ongoing to ensure the quality and completeness of the upload onto the system.


            In compliance with the aims, settled in the “Strategy for the Development of an Information Society for 2017–2030” the access to national patent documentation from the State patent collection is provided through the National Electronic Library (NEL). Soviet and Russian patent documents for inventions and utility models for the period of 1924-2017 in the amount of 2,4 mln were uploaded to NEL. This is equivalent to 52% of the full document collection of NEL (http://нэб.рф).


The project implemented by FIPS in cooperation with Russian State Library and Corporation “ELAR” allowed to open for users new access channel to patent information not only for performing patent searches but also for the purposes of science and education.


The All-Russian Patent Technology Library Division section of the FIPS website the work on updating and supplementing with materials was being performed. Internet Navigator for Patent Information resources was restructured. The new sections Patent Attorney Abroad and Young Inventors Assistance were created: http://new.fips.ru/about/vptb-otdelenie-vserossiyskaya-patentno-tekhnicheskaya-biblioteka/index.php)


Guide to VPTB Collections and Internet Resources, Recommendations on the List of Essential Methodology, Legal and Patent Literature and Documentation for the Provision of Documents for the Patent Subdivisions and Services of the State Science and Education Sector and Organizations forming the national nanotechnology network and Patent legal literature electronic catalogue (at December, 31 2017 contains 106808 publications) were updated quarterly.


The lists of recommendatory bibliography for regions in three fields of studies were made available on the site on a monthly basis. 36 lists in total were prepared in 2017.


Along with the introduction of actual information the material was updated in the following sections – Thematic meetings, Bibliographical indexes and lists, Search systems and databases etc. The translations of the EPO publications ‘Patent Information News’ into Russian were prepared and published (No. 1-4/2017).


In 2017, an updated, official website of the Federal Service for Intellectual Property (www.rupto.ru) was launched to improve the public’s satisfaction with the quality, reliability and completeness of information provided by Rospatent. On the updated website, a new architecture has been created, its design has been improved, and a number of new services have been made available: search by application form, news category, and requisites of legal documents, a forum, online consultant, online testing, glossary, tag cloud, and the option to comment on materials and publications on social media with one click, and an adaptive version has been developed for the visually impaired.


New sections of the website have been developed and opened: ‘The Hague System of International Registration of Industrial Designs’, ‘Committee for the Protection of FIFA Property Rights’, ‘Electronic Brochures’, and ‘Presentations’. The ‘State Services of Rospatent’ section has been updated on the Rospatent website, so that now they are represented in the form of a step-by-step algorithm, while from the home page of the website it is possible to navigate swiftly to the most popular State services. 10 sets, 10 meta-files and 10 data passports have been published in machine-readable format in the ‘Open Data’ section.  


The FIPS website (www.fips.ru) focuses on comprehensive support for users at different stages of the process of legal protection and protection of intellectual property, and the development of electronic interaction provides access to a wide range of databases, including official electronic publications. In 2017, new electronic services were provided for filing applications for the grant of a patent for an industrial design, and registering computer or database software.


New sections have been opened on the FIPS website as follows: ‘Web of Science Search Engine’, ‘Intellectual Property Abstracts Gazette (Foreign Publications)’, ‘Historical Calendar’, and ‘Brief Information, Global PPH’, as well as a ‘Training’ section, which includes information on professional re-training and advanced training programmes, forms of contracts and training applications, and local regulations.

  The following have been posted on the official websites of Rospatent, FIPS and social media: a videoclip, entitled ‘Rospatent- Federal Service for Intellectual Property’, about Rospatent’s aims, objectives, and work; a clip entitled ‘Ideas Brought to Life, Safeguarded and Protected- Rospatent!’, aimed at the youth audience; video reports based on the outcomes of conferences and meetings of collegial and consultative bodies, and training videos on ‘Filing an Application for an Invention’, and ‘Preparing an Application for Registration of a Verbal Trademark’.

Main areas of patent information activities and related information and communication technology (ICT) practices which were in the focus of attention last year


At present, applicants and representatives thereof may interact with FIPS electronically using services provided on the FIPS website (www.fips.ru) and on the State Services Portal. (www.gosuslugi.ru).


The FIPS website enables electronic filing of applications for inventions and utility models, as well as electronic correspondence through the ‘Personal Office’ service for applications for inventions and utility models filed previously. 


In 2017, the following measures were taken to increase the number of applications filed electronically:


-  reliability of the electronic filing system and ease of use thereof were increased;


-  use of electronic filing software services was enabled;


-  use of electronic filing of applications was promoted;


-  newsletters were sent to organizations proposing the use of electronic services for filing applications;


-  thematic meetings were held and advisory user support systems for electronic filing were offered;


-  electronic filing through TISC was organized.


Much attention was paid to Rospatent’s participation in the programs initiated by the RF Government:


-  Unified State and Municipal Services (Functions) Portal (hereinafter, ‘EPGU’);


-  inter-agency electronic interaction system (hereinafter, ‘SMEV’), including the transition to electronic interaction with the Treasury;


-  creating a basic State information resource (hereinafter, ‘BGIR’);


-  participating in the establishment of unified electronic government infrastructure by connecting Rospatent’s automated systems to the Unified System of Identification and Authentication (hereinafter, ‘ESIA’).


At present, up-to-date information on all 26 State services offered by Rospatent are posted in the Federal Register of State and Municipal Services (Functions), and on the Unified Portal of State Services (hereinafter, ‘EPGU’). For 25 State services, it is possible to submit a request (applications, etc.) electronically via EPGU for the provision of a State service.


Five State services (registration of inventions, utility models, industrial designs, trademarks, software and databases) are also provided through the website of the Federal Institute of Industrial Property (hereinafter, FIPS).


Interaction with federal executive authorities is provided using the inter-agency electronic interaction system. The SMEV web-service was developed and registered in a productive SMEV environment, in compliance with methodological guidelines for the development of electronic services and use of electronic signature technology in the inter-agency electronic interaction version 3.0 on July 28, 2017. The type of information that ensures the transfer of information about registered objects of intellectual property.


In 2017, work was carried out to update the ‘Personal Office’ service of the FIPS internet portal in respect of integration with the Unified System of Identification and Authentication (hereinafter, ‘ESIA’) in order to comply with the Guidelines on the use of ESIA version 2.5.

Statistics: changes in terms of application filings and grants with respect to previous year; trends or areas experiencing rapid changes


Inventions


Data relating to the filing of applications and the grant of Russian Federation invention patents for 2016-2017 are presented in Table 1.


Table 1


 

2016

2017

% 2017 to 2016

Total number of invention applications filed, including:

41587

36454

87,66

- by Russian applicants

26795

22777

85,00

- by foreign applicants

14792

13677

92,46

Total number of patents granted, including:

33536

34254

102,14

- to Russian applicants

21020

21037

100,08

- to foreign applicants

12516

13217

105,60


As can be seen from Table 1, in 2017 compared to 2016 there was a decrease in the number of applications filed (by 12.34%), but the increase in the number of issued patents (by 2.14%).


The invention patents granted in 2017 were distributed according to the IPC sections as follows:


Table 2


IPC Section

Invention patents

 

Russian

Foreign

Total

A

5010

2567

7577

B

3151

2350

5501

C

3509

2168

5677

D

76

223

299

E

1501

586

2087

F

2504

1468

3972

G

3808

1928

5736

H

1478

1927

3405

Total

21037

13217

34254


The largest number of patents for inventions granted in 2017 was to Russian applicants for Section A of the International Patent Classification (IPC) – HUMAN NECESSITIES, the same section being the most popular for several years already among foreign applicants. Last year the most popular for Russian applicants, as for foreign applicants was Section С - CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY.


The least popular Section among Russian and foreign applicants alike remains Section D – Textiles and Paper. The number of patents granted for this Section in 2017 comprised only 1 per cent of the overall number of patents granted for inventions.


Utility models


Тable 3


 

2016

2017

% 2017 to 2016

Total number of utility-model applications filed, including:

11112

10643

95,78

- by Russian applicants

10643

10152

95,39

- by foreign applicants

469

491

104,69

Total number of patents granted, including:

8875

8774

98,86

- to Russian applicants

8474

8376

98,84

- to foreign applicants

401

398

99,25


In 2017 there was a decrease in the number of applications filed for utility models. The number of applications filed fell by 4.22%, with the decrease observed on applications of domestic applicants (by 4.61%), foreign growth is observed (by 4.69%). Also, the total number of patents granted decreased (by 1.14%).


Data on the distribution of patents for utility models by IPC Section are presented below.


Тable 4


IPC Section

2016г.

2017г.

A

1550

1717

B

2034

2143

C

194

261

D

36

30

E

1184

1058

F

1487

1419

G

1343

1193

H

1047

953

Total

8875

8774


The leading IPC Section in 2017 remained Section B – Performing Operations and Transporting – while second place was taken by Section A – Human Necessities. As in 2016, Section D – Textiles and Paper – continued to be the least in demand, with the lowest number of certificates granted.


Over 13,500 applications for inventions and utility models were filed electronically during 2017; for inventions- 12,413 (over 34 per cent of the total number of invention applications), and for utility models- 1327 (approximately 12,47 per cent of the total number of utility-model applications).


The growth in electronic filing of applications for inventions and utility models is presented in the diagram below:

The main factors that influenced the growth in the filing of applications in electronic form in 2017 were the provision of a 30% discount when paying fees for committing legally significant actions, popularizing the means of electronic interaction.

Other matters and useful links (URLs): annual report of the Office, news page, statistics, etc.


The following pages of the Office’s websites contain:


Information on patent legislation- Regulation section: http://www.rupto.ru/docs;


Office Annual Report- Rospatent Annual Reports section: http://www.rupto.ru/about/reports;


Statistical information- Statistical Data section: http://www.rupto.ru/about/stat;


Monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative indicators for the main activities of FIPS in 2017 is provided on the FIPS website in the FIPS Main Activities section:


http://new.fips.ru/about/deyatelnost/index.php;


Links sectionhttp://new.fips.ru/about/vptb-otdelenie-vserossiyskaya-patentno-tekhnicheskaya-biblioteka/ssylki-na-internet-resursy.php;


Rospatent News: http://www.rupto.ru/ru/news;


FIPS News: http://new.fips.ru/news/;


The Abstract Bulletin of Intellectual Property (foreign publications) is presented on the FIPS website in All-Russian Patent Technology Library Division section – Patent information products section: http://new.fips.ru/about/vptb-otdelenie-vserossiyskaya-patentno-tekhnicheskaya-biblioteka/referativnyy-byulleten-po-intellektualnoy-sobstvennosti-zarubezhnye-publikatsii.php

II. SERVICES AND ACTIVITIES RELATED TO PATENT INFORMATION CARRIED OUT BY THE OFFICE

Information and support provided by the Office to applicants regarding filing on paper and/or e-filing (instructions, seminars, etc.) - URLs


One of the most important tasks of a patent office, including Rospatent, is to provide an environment conducive with filing patent applications for industrial property subject matter, thereby promoting inventive activity in the country.


The main measures aimed at addressing this issue include:


- posting instructional materials necessary for preparing and filing applications for all types of industrial property on the Rospatent website;


- providing advice on matters relating to the registration and filing of applications;


- providing opportunities for all categories of users to work with the State patent collection (GPF) and other patent information products available in the Library free-of-charge;


- holding thematic meetings between Rospatent and FIPS heads and specialists and patent attorneys and other business community representatives about acquaintance with new normative legal acts in the field of intellectual property and their practical applications, about patent search systems usage and thematic meetings about learning to use electronic application filing services;


- holding internships and training for work with patent documentation, electronic application filing services for the grant of patents for inventions and utility models and for trademark registration etc.


Users of the FIPS website have access to user and technical documentation on setting up and operating an electronic application filing service for the grant of patents for inventions and utility models, and corresponding electronically using the ‘Personal Office’ service: http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/el_zayav/


Answers to frequently asked questions are posted on a section of the FIPS website.


Service users may contact the Technical Support Service during working hours at helpdesk@rupto.ru to obtain professional help from technical specialists.


The web page addresses of Office websites providing information on filing applications are as follows:


State registration of inventions, and grant of patents in respect of inventions, and duplicates thereof:


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/stateservices/gosudarstvennaya-registraciya-izobreteniya-i-vydacha-patenta-na-izobretenie-ego-dublikata;


State registration of utility models, and grant of patents in respect of utility models, and duplicates thereof:


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/stateservices/gosudarstvennaya-registraciya-poleznoy-modeli-i-vydacha-patenta-na-poleznuyu-model-ego-dublikata;


Access to documents for patent applications for inventions, utility models, industrial designs, and issuance of copies of said documents:


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/stateservices/oznakomlenie-s-dokumentami-zayavki-na-vydachu-patenta-na-izobretenie-poleznuyu-model-promyshlennyy-obrazec-i-vydacha-kopiy-takih-dokumentov;


 Methodical recommendations on the examination of applications for inventions and utility models:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/inventions_utility_models/rec_inv;


section "Forms of documents":


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/documentforms;


Specimen Applications and Requests, and Completed Examples section heading:


http://new.fips.ru/documents/formy-dokumentov/;


 Electronic Filing Applications section:


http://new.fips.ru/podacha-zayavki/;


The ‘Personal Office’ service facilitates correspondence on stage of prosecution for applications filed both in hard-copy, and using the electronic application filing services:


http://new.fips.ru/podacha-zayavki/lichnyy-kabinet-dlya-perepiski-po-zayavkam/index.php



Details of seminars and other similar events held in 2017 can be found in Part 5(e).

Availability of the application dossier in electronic form


Access is provided on the Rospatent and FIPS websites to the following resources:


-  A database of invention applications filed between 2007 and 2017 (containing a brief summary of the prosecution for 381 thousand of applications, and updated daily).


-  A database of applications for utility models filed between 2007 and 2017 (containing a brief summary of the prosecution for 115 thousand of applications, and updated daily).


As part of the automated paperless prosecution information system for examining inventions, access is provided to primary materials for applications for inventions and utility models, versions of the application components (invention claims, descriptions), bibliographic data and versions of documents sent to applicants, images of incoming correspondence, and outgoing correspondence, signed electronically.

Classification1, preclassification2 (if applicable), reclassification3 activities; classification systems used (e.g., International Patent Classification (IPC)); matters concerning indexing of patent information

After the completion of the next version of the International Patent Classification (IPC) in 2017, Rospatent prepared a new full Russian version of the IPC. This version is used both in the internal search system of Rospatent “PatSearch”, and is published on its website for external users of patent information.

In the frames of the IPC revision work conducted by WIPO in 2017comments and proposals on the following projects had been prepared by Rospatent:

F059 (D06F 33/00, 58/28), F053 (F24J), F067 (B29C 47/00), C476 (F24J 11).

During the transition from the IPC 2016.01 to the IPC 2017.01, about 6,000 domestic patent documents were reclassified, the reclassification to the IPC 2018.01 continues.

Parallel to the IPC in 2017 FIPS examiners assigned the СPC symbols on all current patent documents both inventions and utility models.

In the classification, FIPS examiners use the complete IPC scheme, including indexing codes for classifying additional information on national patent documents.

As earlier in 2017 Rospatent took part in the work of Working groups and the Committee of experts of WIPO on the IPC revision.

In 2017, 37,992 applications for inventions and 10,549 applications for utility models were assigned a preliminary classification index before being forwarded to the appropriate examination divisions.

International applications received by the International Patent Cooperation Division of Rospatent in its role as an International Searching Authority and an International Preliminary Examining Authority are assigned a preliminary IPC index classification, which determines the appropriate examination division for each application. In 2017, 3,925 international applications were assigned a preliminary classification index before being forwarded to the appropriate examination divisions for the purposes of conducting an international search.

Abstracting, reviewing, and translation of the information contained in patent documents


In 2017, abstracts continued to be published in Russian and English for RF patents granted for inventions as part of the Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette and posted on the FIPS website.


With the aim of providing examiners and other categories of users with comfortable conditions when working with foreign patent documentation, immediate translation assistance is provided for patent documentation, both from Russian into other languages and from other languages into Russian, in both written and oral form.


In connection with carrying out significant work to translate foreign documents on all issues related to intellectual property, the All-Russian Patent and Technical Library Division (hereinafter, ‘VPTB’) works actively to supplement thematic dictionaries on the latest subjects.

In 2017 with the aim of providing users with the information about interesting and timely publications from issues in foreign languages that enter the patent and law literature collection the Abstract Bulletin of Intellectual Property (foreign publications) containing abstracts in Russian language was prepared. The bulletin is published on the FIPS website and within a year it was viewed over 30 thousand times. 

Other activities

III. SOURCES OF PATENT INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE OFFICE

 

Main types of publications of the Office (patent applications, full text, first pages, abstracts, bibliographic data, granted patents, etc.), medium (on paper, on CDs, online - URLs)


Table 5 contains data on the main types of Office publications in the field of patent information, carriers and also the frequency of publications.


Тable 5


Publication Title

Form of Publication

Frequency of Publication

Official publications of Rospatent on inventions and utility models

Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette,

including the sections:

 

RF Invention Applications - (primary publication section) 

 

Reports on Information Searches on RF Invention Applications

 

RF Invention Patents - (secondary publication section)




Additional RF Invention Patents


RF Utility Model Patents - (primary publication section)

 

 

USSR authors’ certificates and patents for previously unpublished inventions 

(Information on de-classified  inventions previously recognized as secret by the State, for which USSR  copyright certificates for secret inventions were issued(1)

and

Information on copyright certificates and USSR  invention patents not previously published (2)))

 

RF Invention Patents for previously unpublished inventions 

 

 


Notifications

 

 

Republications

Court decisions on the infringement of patent owners’ rights



Bibliographic data and claims.


Reports are published on information searches on invention applications filed after October 1, 2014, information on which has been published.

 

Two options for the presentation of information:

1. On the title page -bibliographic data and claims;

2. Full descriptions for patents in the form of bibliographic data, abstract of a description, text of a description, drawing(s), claims.

Abstracts of invention descriptions translated into English.

 On the title page - bibliographic data, utility model claims and drawing (where appropriate).

 

Information is published on the grant of additional invention patent relating to products such as medicinal agents, pesticides or agrochemicals, for the use of which a permit has been obtained. Information content: bibliographical data; claims of the invention in respect of which the term of validity of the exclusive right has been extended.

 

Two options for the presentation of information:

1. On the title page -bibliographic data and claims;

2. Full descriptions for patents in the form of bibliographic data, abstract of a description, text of a description, drawing(s) and claims.

 

Two options for the presentation of information:

1. On the title page -bibliographic data and claims.

Full descriptions for patents in the form of bibliographic data, abstract of a description, text of a description, drawing(s), claims.

Abstracts of invention descriptions translated into English.

 

2. Bibliographic data and claims.


Two options for the presentation of information:

1. On the title page -bibliographic data and claims.

2. Full descriptions for patents in the form of bibliographic data, abstract of a description, text of a description, drawing(s), claims.

(the data are equivalent to those in RF  Invention Patents)

 

Information is published on the insertion of amendments into published information on invention applications, or on amendments recorded in the State Registers of Inventions and Utility Models of the Russian Federation.

 

Corrected descriptions of inventions for RF patents and corrected descriptions of utility models for RF patents are published.

 

Court decisions on infringement of patent owners’ rights (at the request of a patent owner)

Three times per month 
(36 issues per year)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual Rospatent Activity Report for 2016 (on CD and on website)

Structure and composition of data determined by Rospatent

Once per year


During 2017, the Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette has been posted on the website of the Federal State Budgetary Institution, the Federal Institute of Industrial Property (FIPS), which is subordinate to Rospatent, in the Official Publications section, and is freely available, constituting a functional and comprehensive information source. The ISSN number is 2313-7436.


Gazette documents are in PDF format. 


Since January 10, 2017, a system of continuous publication of information on inventions and utility models in official Gazettes immediately after entries are made in the State Register of Inventions and State Register of Utility Models has been implemented.


 


All Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette for 205-2017 available at:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/ofic_pub_ru/#page=bulletin&type=IZPM


The web page addresses of the Office’s websites providing information concerning Office publications are as follows:


  • Regulations on the official publications of the Federal Service for Intellectual Property:


http://new.fips.ru/upload/iblock/7fd/Pologenie_105.pdf;


  • Official Publications section:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/ofic_pub_ru/;


  • Catalog of Publications and Databases in the Patent Information Products section:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/publishing_activities/


http://new.fips.ru/vse-uslugi/patentno-informatsionnye-produkty/


Official Gazettes: main types of announcements, frequency of publication, medium (on paper, on CDs, online - URL), etc.


The Official Gazette, Inventions and Utility Models, is published three times per month.


The forms of notifications on inventions and utility models published in the Rospatent Official Gazette, Inventions and Utility Models, are presented in Table 6:


Table 6


Notifications on amendments and corrections to information on State registration of inventions/utility models

PD4A/PD9K Change of title, surname, first name or patronymic of the patent holder

ТС4A/TC9K Change of author’s/authors’ details

ТЕ4A/TE9K Change of correspondence address

Notifications on termination and restoration of validity of a patent for an invention/utility model

MZ4A/MZ9K Early termination of validity of a patent for an invention/utility model (group of inventions/utility models) at the patent owner’s request

ММ4А/MM9K Early termination of validity of a patent owing to non-payment within the prescribed period of the fee for maintenance of the patent in force

МK4A/MK9K Termination of validity of a patent for an invention/utility model (group of inventions/utility models) upon expiry of the term of validity

MG4A/MG9K Termination of validity of a patent for an invention/utility model (group of inventions/utility models) due to grant of patent for identical subject matter

NF4A/NF9K Restoration of validity of a patent

MF4A/MF9K Cancellation of a patent deemed wholly invalid

MF4A/MF9K Cancellation of a patent deemed partially invalid

NG4A/NG9K Grant of a new patent in respect of a previously granted patent deemed partially invalid

Notifications on extension of the term of validity of a patent for an invention, grant of a duplicate patent

ND4A Extension of term of validity of a patent for an invention (group of inventions) at the patent owner’s request

RH4A/RH9K Grant of a duplicate patent

RH4F Grant of a duplicate of a copyright certificate or USSR patent for an invention

ND4A Extension of term of validity of an exclusive right in an invention relating to a product such as a medicinal agent, pesticide or agrochemical, for use of which a permit has been obtained. Grant of additional invention patent (pursuant to Article 1363(2) of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation)

Notifications relating to State registration of an agreement on disposal of the exclusive right in an invention/utility model, and transfer of the exclusive right in an invention/utility model without an agreement being concluded

PC4A/PC9K State registration of an agreement on alienation of an exclusive right

PC4A/PC9K State registration of the transfer of an exclusive right without an agreement being concluded

QB4A/QB9K State registration of an agreement on grant of right of use 

QB4A/QB9K State registration of an agreement on a pledge (subsequent pledge) of an  exclusive right

QZ4A/QZ9K State registration of amendments relating to an agreement on alienation of an exclusive right

QZ4A/QZ9K State registration of amendments relating to an agreement on grant of right of use

QZ4A/QZ9K State registration of an amendment to an agreement

QZ4A/QZ9K State registration of amendments relating to an agreement on a pledge (subsequent pledge) of an exclusive right

QC4A/QC9K State registration of termination of an agreement on grant of right of use

QC4A/QC9K State registration of termination of an agreement

QC4A/QC9K State registration of termination of an agreement on a pledge (subsequent pledge) of an exclusive right 

QA4A/QA9K Registration of an open license

QZ4A/QZ9K Registration of an application to withdraw an application for an open license

Notifications on registered inventions/utility models

ТK4A/TK9K Correction of obvious and technical errors in the records of the State Register of Inventions/Utility Models of the Russian Federation and/or in publications in the Gazette

TK4A Amendments to information publications on inventions in English  

RZ4A/RZ9K Other amendments relating to registered inventions/utility models

TH4A/TH9K Re-issue of descriptions of inventions/utility models to patents

TH4A/TH9K Re-issue of title pages of descriptions to patents for inventions/utility models  


 


The addresses of web pages of the Office’s site providing access to online publications:


  • Regulations on the official gazette Inventions. Useful Models:


http://www1.fips.ru/file_site/norm_docs/poloj_iz_pm/Pologenie_IZ.pdf;


  • Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/ofic_pub_ru/#page=search&type=IZPM&number=0;


  • In the Information Resources section, International Classifications subsection: 


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/ofic_pub_ru/#page=classification&type=IZPM;


  • Open Registers of Russian Patent Documents:


 http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/Registers/.


From the above page, a user may refer to the following resources by means of the appropriate link:


Register of Inventions of the Russian Federation


Register of Utility Models of the Russian Federation


Register of Applications for the Grant of a Russian Federation Invention Patent


Register of Applications for the Grant of a Russian Federation Utility Model Patent.


Information products and patent document collections (coverage, medium, etc.) available to examiners, including external collections and databases


Examiners primarily gain access to patent information through the in-house search system, PatSearch. The search arrays of the PatSearch system include patent documents from Russia and the USSR going back to 1924, of the CIS countries, foreign countries in the PCT minimum documentation, as well as a DWPI array. If the information contained in the PatSearch system is insufficient, examiners may consult patent-office databases that are freely available on the Internet (mainly Espacenet, PATENTSCOPE, EAPATIS, and the databases of USPTO and the patent office of Japan). In order to view correspondence relating to applications in the patent offices of Japan and Korea, examiners can access the AIPN and K-PION databases, respectively.


Where necessary, examiners perform searches in commercial databases. These are mainly databases provided through the STN International platform. These databases are generally consulted during searches on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. In 2017, about 1100 searches of this type were carried out.


In addition, examiners may perform information searches in any source freely available on the Internet.


Electronic resources of non-patent literature purchased on a commercial basis are available to Office examiners through the inter-library loan service and electronic document delivery systems.


Information products and patent document collections (coverage, medium, etc.) available to external users, conditions of access (e.g., free of charge, subscription, etc.)


VPTB users have access to Rospatent’s automated information search system PatSearch, the Eurasian Patent Office’s EAPATIS search systems, the European Patent Office’s Global Patent Index, Questel company’s database Questel Orbit, National Electronic Library (NEB), the Digital Dissertation Library of the Russian State Library, Web of science and KluwerIPLaw search platforms etc.


In 2017, patent information subscribers were presented with the Inventions and Utility Models Gazette, based on official Rospatent information, with full descriptions of inventions and utility models for RF patents on electronic CD/DVD carrier with search system. They are distributed with a frequency of 36 issues (disks) per year. 


For new subscribers, and also for the purposes of keeping patent collections up to date, the series of the Inventions and Utility Models Gazette with full descriptions of inventions for RF patents published in previous years (2014-2016) were offered on CD/DVD.


In addition, in the interests of users, the following information products were distributed:


  • - Annual retrospective sets of invention descriptions for USSR authors certificates and RF patents, from 1924 to 2015, on DVD (a total of 116 disks), as well as the Retrospective set of descriptions of inventions for 2016 by FTP (File Transfer Protocol );
  • - An information-search system for invention descriptions for RF patents in Russian and English, from 1994 to 2017, on DVD and via FTP - quarterly and cumulative;
  • - Title pages of utility model descriptions for RF documents providing protection, from 1994 to 2017, on DVD and via FTP - quarterly and cumulative;
  • - Descriptions of utility models for RF documents providing protection from 1994 to 2016 on DVD (17 disks);


In addition, the International Patent Classification, edition 2017.01 (IPC-2017.01), alphabetical subject indexes on DVD with a search system were published, and the Rospatent Annual Report for 2016 via FTP.


Most products on CD and DVD were distributed with MIMOSA software, allowing all forms of patent searches to be carried out.


On the basis of official information relating to inventions and utility models, thematic databases are produced for users on CD/ DVD on special request.


In 2017, access to the electronic version of the Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette was provided on the FIPS website, while the registers of Russian inventions and utility models continued to be updated, and details of the legal status thereof were provided.


Also on the Internet, users are granted free access to information on applications for the grant of Russian Federation invention and utility model patents. Information on the prosecution of applications is available for applications received after January 1, 2007.


In 2017, the FIPS website provided access to:


1) the information-search system (IPS) for domestic patent documentation;


2) the Open Registers information resource, an information reference source which can be used by any person to search for information concerning a patent granted, or the stage of prosecution for applications filed at Rospatent. Reference information is structured by patent number, or application registration number by:  


- registers of Russian patent documents relating to inventions and utility models;


- registers containing information on the prosecution of applications filed in 2007-2017 for the grant of invention and utility model patents;


3) the Rospatent’s Official Gazettes “Inventions. Utility Models”.


Rospatent Internet resources are compiled in the following databases:


- a full-text database of Russian inventions (contains information on 731,000 invention patents from 1994 to 2017 inclusive, updated three times per month);


- a retrospective database of Russian patent documents in facsimile form (contains information on 1,431,000 patent documents for inventions from 1924 to 1993 inclusive);


- an abstracts database for Russian inventions (contains information on 731,000 patents for inventions from 1994 to 2017 inclusive, updated three times per month);


- a database of published applications for inventions (contains information on 517,000 applications for inventions from 1994 to 2017 inclusive, updated three times per month);


- an abstracts database for Russian inventions in English (contains information on 647,000 invention patents from 1994 to 2017 inclusive, updated three times per month);


- a full-text database of Russian utility models (contains information on 176,000 Russian utility model certificates and patents from 1996 to 2017 inclusive, updated quarterly);


- an abstracts database for Russian utility models (contains information on 176,000 Russian utility model certificates and patents from 1996 to 2017 inclusive, updated three times per month);


- a future-oriented inventions database (contains information on 2,350 patents for inventions that are recognized by FIPS as promising, updated once per quarter);


- a database of invention applications filed from 2007 to 2017 (contains information on the prosecution of 381,000 applications, updated daily);


- a database of utility model applications filed from 2007 to 2017 (contains information on the prosecution of 115,000 applications, updated daily).


Users’ work with the information-search system


Office examiners are given the possibility to work with all inventions and utility models databases. 


Access for external users to full-text inventions and utility models databases is granted on a contractual basis.


In 2017, as part of the cooperation agreements between Rospatent and relevant organizations, access was granted:


in relation to full-text inventions and utility models databases, to:


  •   153 organizations, as part of the Rospatent Program of Cooperation with regions of the Russian Federation
  •   36 organizations participating in the implementation of the State project to develop nanotechnologies
  •   160 Technology and Innovation Support Centres
  •   2 organizations of State Corporation Rostekh


in relation to all FIPS databases, to:


  •   105 organizations of the Federal Service of Court Bailiffs
  •   235 organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  •   98 organizations of the Federal Anti-Monopoly Service
  •   16 organizations of the Ministry of Defense
  •   95 organizations of the taxation service
  •   60 users of the Court for Intellectual Property Rights
  •   2 users of the RosOboronPostavka
  •   2 organizations of the Federal Customs Service
  •   4 users of the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
  •   12 users of the Roskhomnadzor.


External users are provided free of charge with the following databases:


in relation to inventions:


  •  abstracts databases in Russian and English,
  •  a database of published invention applications,
  •  a future-oriented inventions database,
  •  a full-text database containing information on RF invention patents No.2503161, published in the Inventions and Utility Models Gazette;
  •  the IPC database


in relation to utility models:


a database containing information on RF utility model patents No.136275, published in the Inventions and Utility Models Gazette;


an abstracts database;


 the IPC database.


In 2017, internal and external users made more than 3,016,000 requests to the IPC, of which:


 Approximately 91,000 by internal database users;


more than 2,925,000 by external database users.


Users’ Work with Registers of Russian Patent Documents


Users of registers are provided with free access to all patent documents of Rospatent’s Internet resources.


In 2017, internal and external users of registers made more than 81,630,000 requests.


Users’ Work with Rospatent Official Gazettes


Users are provided with free access to Rospatent’s Official Gazettes “Inventions. Utility Models”.


Access is provided to all Gazettes published since January, 2014.


In 2017, users accessed Rospatent Gazettes on more than 4,132,000 occasions.


The addresses of web pages of the Office’s site containing information on information products and services provided by the Office:


● Rospatent Patent and Information Resources section:


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/sourses;


Information on subscribing to patent information products  in the Patent Information Products section: Catalog of Publications and Databases:


http://new.fips.ru/vse-uslugi/patentno-informatsionnye-produkty/;


How to Access Publications and Databases subsection :


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/publishing_activities/publications_prospectus/por;


How to carry out a search – in the Information Resources section, Information-Search System sub-section:


http://new.fips.ru/elektronnye-servisy/informatsionno-poiskovaya-sistema/;


Open Registers: http://new.fips.ru/elektronnye-servisy/otkrytye-reestry/;


Inventions and Utility Models Official Gazette, in the Official Publications section:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/ofic_pub_ru/#page=bulletin&type=IZPM;


●Patent databases- Databases subsection in the Information-Search System section:


http://new.fips.ru/elektronnye-servisy/informatsionno-poiskovaya-sistema/bazy-dannykh.php;


●Information on how to access and use resources – in the Information-Search System section, 


Instructions for Using an Information-Search System sub-sections:


http://new.fips.ru/elektronnye-servisy/informatsionno-poiskovaya-sistema/instr_search_2018.pdf;


Support:


http://new.fips.ru/elektronnye-servisy/informatsionno-poiskovaya-sistema/podderzhka-polzovateley-informatsionno-poiskovoy-sistemy.php.

Legal status information (kind of information, coverage, medium, etc.)


All patent documents in Russian databases contain information on current legal status that is updated three times a month.


The Automated Database (ADB) subsystems to determine legal status use the given official publications containing information on new registrations of protection titles and changes. Following publication of each Gazette, data on legal status are displayed on the Rospatent site in the Information Resources section. For inventions and utility models patent status may be “valid”, “may terminate validity”, “validity terminated, but may be restored”, and “validity terminated”.


Information on the legal status of inventions and utility models is published in the Rospatent’s Official Gazettes “Inventions. Utility Models” on CD/DVD and on the Rospatent site:


- information on the grant of RF patents for inventions and utility models;


- information on amendments to the published information on applications for inventions and to entries in the State Registers of Inventions and Utility Models (Notifications section of the Gazette).


Information is provided in the Information Resources section of the Office’s website on registrations with an indication of the legal status or stage of prosecution of the registered subject matter in the Open Registers: http://www1.fips.ru/wps/portal/Registers/.


Other sources

IV. ICT SUPPORT TO SERVICES AND ACTIVITIES RELATED TO PATENT INFORMATION CARRIED OUT BY THE OFFICE

Specific software tools supporting business procedures within the Office: general description, characteristics, advantages, possible improvements


In order to improve the accessibility of State services provided by Rospatent, a hardware and software system was put into commercial operation which enables remote examination of claims and objections in the Chamber for Patent Disputes for inhabitants of the regions. Participation in the hearing is provided through a browser, and no additional software installation is required for external participants. Implementation of the system received a favourable response among patent attorneys.


In 2017, Rospatent examiners used the Information-Search System, PatSearch, for invention and utility model examinations. The PatSearch system is a professional search system for patent office examiners to perform searches when examining inventions and utility models. As a result, a wide range of functions and services has been introduced into the system.


Below is a list of the main functions of the system:


- Search in selected arrays


- Index browsing when preparing a request


- Sample analysis (statistics on search results)


- Document viewer (with highlighting of search terms)


- Two-window document viewing


- Print documents


- Export documents


- Consideration of IPC reform and subsequent reclassification


- Search based on the IPC and SPS, as well as the Thomson Reuters (Derwent) classification.


- Multilingual machine translation (including translation of a selection of the document or the whole document, and separate translation of query)


- Analysis of search results (including cluster analysis and construction of semantic networks)


- Espacenet search


- E-Library search


- Amino acid and nucleotide sequence search in the European data bank, EMBL.


In 2017, additional tools were developed in the PatSearch system to search by number range in text fields. This includes the PatSearch system providing a number range search in the form of measure of inaccuracy (operational margin).


The PatSearch system also supports searches of non-patent literature in external sources, including searches of genetic sequences on the European Bioinformatics Institute website. In addition to PatSearch, all examiners use free access to all foreign patent office search databases, and to several databases of non-patent literature.


Extensive use has been made of the opportunity to document search histories, including an indication of search arrays, search query transcripts, and the number of documents located and viewed, as well as a list of documents included in the examiner’s final selection.

Hardware used to supporting business processes of the Office


Equipment used:


Fujitsu M10-4S server


(RAM – 96GB, processors – 20, external memory – 24 TB)


HP DL380 server – 42 units


(RAM – 4GB, processors - 2, external memory – 200 GB)


HP DL580 server – 18 units


(RAM – 16GB, processors - 4, external memory - 600 GB)


HP, Fujitsu-Siemens workstations – 1,115 units.


Switching equipment:


Cisco 6509, Cisco 6503, Cisco 4507


Software:


Solaris, Windows XP, Windows 7,


Windows 2003 Server, Windows 2008 Server, Windows 2012 Server operating systems.


Carriers used:


Ultrium magnetic tapes.

Internal databases: coverage, updates, interlinks with external sources


In 2017, the main search tool was Rospatent’s in-house search system, PatSearch, which is available at each examiner’s workstation. The search array of PatSearch includes patent documentation from Russia, the USSR, and CIS countries, and countries included in PCT minimum documentation, as well as an array from DWPI. In total, PatSearch includes more than 70 million original patent documents. Full texts of patent documents not yet loaded into the system may be viewed via built-in online reference to Espacenet.


The PatSearch system supports non-patent literature searching in external sources: genetic sequences searching in the European Bioinformatics Institute databases and non-patent literature searching in the Electronic Scientific Library of the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (eLIBRARY.RU).

Establishment and maintenance of electronic search file: file building, updating, storage, documents from other offices included in the search file


The main source of information for the principal functions of Rospatent is the State Patent Collection (GPF).


The main source for establishing the State Patent Collection (GPF), including its electronic PatSearch system content, is the international exchange of patent documentation. At present, international exchange continues to exist and evolve in a new format using new information technology based on PatSearch requirements and ensures the GPF is updated free of charge.


Foreign patent documentation obtained using FTP may be loaded onto the PatSearch system from the websites or specialist Internet resources of foreign patent offices or organizations.


In 2017, information was uploaded onto the PatSearch system from all arrays of patent documentation from PCT minimum countries, as well as an update of the DWPI array. Arrays of patent documentation have been uploaded onto the system from the USSR and Russia, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), PCT, the European Patent Office (EPO), the United States of America, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Austria, Australia, ARIPO, OAPI, and the Republic of Korea, and English-language abstracts and patent documents from Japan and other countries. 


The total number of patent documents in the original language is 60 million. The system provides viewing of complete descriptions of documents not yet uploaded to the system, but located under the DWPI index, through built-in online access to the arrays of the EPO. Non-patent literature may be searched through built-in access to the external Russian digital library, E-library.


System search arrays


  • DWPI array
  • Descriptions of USSR inventions from 1924 to 1993
  • Descriptions of RF inventions from 1994 to date
  • Claims of RF utility models from 1994 (No. 1) to date
  • Claims of Russian invention applications
  • Unpublished Russian invention applications
  • Abstracts of patent documents from the world’s leading countries in English (DWPI)
  • Descriptions of inventions from PCT minimum countries, including:
  • PCT applications
  • EPO
  • United States of America
  • Japan
  • Germany
  • United Kingdom
  • Canada
  • France
  • Austria
  • Australia
  • Switzerland
  • Republic of Korea
  • China
  • ARIPO
  • OAPI


Descriptions of inventions from CIS countries with abstracts in Russian (CISPATENT)


A total is of more than 125 million patent documents.


VPTB users also enjoy access to the GPI EPO system, databases QUESTEL and EAPATIS, and electronic non-patent literature resources: the electronic database of dissertations of the Russian State Library (DDB RSL) and the National Electronic Library (NEB).


The GPF is one of the most accessible and highest-quality patent collections in the world. The patent documentation of GPF is provided on all carrier types – optical disks, local networks, paper, and micro-carriers.


A significant part of the GPF is available on optical disks (76,400 optical disks as at January 1, 2018). The collection is formed, mainly, from traditional international exchange of patent documentation with foreign patent offices. The patent collection on optical disks contains patent documentation from Russia, the PCT minimum countries, CIS, the international organizations, WIPO, EPO, and EAPO, as well as Denmark, Spain, Serbia, Slovenia, and Finland, etc.; patent documentation is made available to all categories of users in the VPTB display class.


The collection of optical disks is stored in metal cupboards. Information on disk locations (cupboard number, shelf number, etc.), their usage history, possible exchanges and so on are available in a special technology database. Work with this collection is free of charge for all categories of users in the VPTB display class.


Information downloaded from the FTP servers is temporarily stored on the local network before being subsequently uploaded onto PatSearch.

Administrative management electronic systems (register, legal status, statistics, and administrative support)


The Automated Databank (ABD), designed to prosecute applications and protection titles for inventions and utility models, has subsystems that manage the work of examiners and support staff, as well as capturing statistical information on various aspects of the activities of Rospatent subdivisions.


The subsystems for statistics allow the creation of over 300 different forms of reports on the activities of the Office’s subdivisions.


The electronic prosecution system for the examination of inventions (AS EA), supports the following functional capabilities:


  • upload and download electronic documents to Applications e-Work;
  • plan examiners’ work, draft master plans and portfolios of examiners’ applications;
  • capture statistics;
  • provide access to Applications e-Work and application components and bibliographical information,
  • prepare outgoing correspondence and sign decisions on issuance of patents by electronic signature,
  • verify and revise the electronic package of application elements intended for publication,
  • application search function,
  • developed user administration system.


System AS EA integrated with ABD.

Other matters


In order to reduce staff shortages, adoption of remote working with access to FIPS automated systems is ongoing in expert departments.


V. PROMOTION ACTIVITIES AIMED TO SUPPORT USERS IN ACCESS AND EFFICIENT USE OF PATENT INFORMATION

Patent library: equipment, collection management, network of patent libraries in the country, cooperation with foreign patent libraries


The main functions of the All-Russian Patent Technology Library (VPTB) is the establishment of the State Patent Collection (GPF), including patent documentation on all industrial property subject matter, scientific and technical and legal and patent literature on all carrier types, and also providing them to all categories of users. In so doing, VPTB fulfills the functions of a public library and the library of the Office at the same time. The main source for the GPF is international exchange, which ensures updating of patent documentation and Official Gazettes of foreign offices, while national and foreign scientific and technical, and legal and patent, literature is updated through subscription and obtaining books and periodicals.


As at December 31, 2017, the GPF comprised 129,806,0 documents overall. 


In order to assist VPTB readers, both general and specialized reading rooms are provided:


- computer room (for optical disks and remote databases);


- paper and micro-form patent documentation;


- information and bibliography services.


VPTB provides free access to patent collections that are targeted at all categories of RF users, as well as those in neighboring and other foreign countries without any restrictions. Visits and services are free of charge for all categories of library users.


The VPTB patent collection is managed according to type of industrial property and information carrier.


The Library premises are equipped with an alarm system and an automatic fire-fighting system.


A total of 86,100 persons consulted GPF in 2017.


In 2017, users (including examiners) were issued with over 31.4 million exemplars of patent documents: over 29.6 million exemplars on optical disks and from remote databases; over 1.5 million exemplars on paper, and 0,900 exemplars on micro-carrier.


The patent information services of VPTB are provided to remote users on request, including performing patent information searches and factual references, providing certified copies of documents of title and translations of patent documents, etc.


The Russian patent office does not have a regional network of patent libraries, although in 2017, as part of the project to create Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISC), it cooperated with Russian libraries in providing patent documentation.


As part of international exchange of patent information, it cooperates with a number of foreign patent libraries, including the Library of the Patent Office of Austria, the Central Patent Library of the Office of Bulgaria, the State Patent Technology Library of the Republic of Tajikistan, National Library of Great Britain and other libraries.

Publications related to different business procedures and patent information sources available to users, for example, books, brochures, Internet publications, etc.


The VPTB offers a unique collection of legal and patent, and dictionary and reference literature (PPL collection), which is an important constituent part of the GPF is available. The PPL collection on paper and electronic information carriers includes publications on a wide range of theoretical and practical issues of intellectual property protection in the Russian Federation and abroad, including issues relating to the creation, legal protection, and commercialization of the results of intellectual activity, jurisprudence, protection of intellectual property on the Internet, activity of international organizations, and international cooperation in the field of intellectual property, etc.


The PPL collection contains various types of information source: legislative acts, international and intergovernmental agreements, treaties, regulations, as well as instructions, orders, rules and other documents; comments and reviews; guidelines and study aids; standards in the field of patent and scientific and technical information; annual reports of patent offices; symposium and conference materials; collections of court decisions; collections of statistics; bibliographical publications, industry, terminology and language dictionaries, reference books and encyclopedias.


At present, the PPL collection comprises approximately 91,900 publications, with the oldest publications dating from 1810. 


In addition to the above sources of information, all categories of users have been given access to the Kluwer IP Law database (Kluwer Law and Business), containing information on various aspects of the legal protection of intellectual property subject matter in countries throughout the world, Edward Elgar e-books and MyiLibrary, as well as access to publications of the National Electronic Library (NEL).


The Office examiners are also provided with access to non-patent literature through interlibrary lending and electronic document delivery systems. In order to meet examiners’ requirements, the collections of 8 specialized Moscow libraries are used, as well as databases QUESTEL and the electronic database of dissertations of the Russian State Library (DDB RSL) and the National Electronic Library (NEB).


An electronic catalog, Legal Protection of Intellectual Property: Domestic and Foreign Publications, has been created based on an analysis of publications entering into the PPL collection, bibliographies, publications posted on the Internet, and other sources. The catalog is a comprehensive information resource of patent and legal information and is a search-reference tool for the PPL collection. The catalog is a comprehensive information resource of patent and legal information and is a search-reference tool for the PPL collection. The catalog contains bibliographical descriptions in the original language, and Russian translations of titles and/or abstracts, and as of December, 31 2017, there were approximately 160 thousand bibliographic records. The catalog also contains 6,700 links, 409 electronic documents and 8,0 Internet links to full-text documents posted on patent owners’ websites.


Overall, in 2017, more than 105,000 users consulted the information available in the VPTB Division section of the FIPS website, was viewed 1378,900 pages.


Reference information on the stages of prosecution in patenting subject matter of patent law is published on the Rospatent website in the Subject Matter of Patent Law section:


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/objects-of-patent-rights.


Information on the systems for granting legal protection abroad is available in the Foreign Patenting section: http://www.rupto.ru/ohrana_zarubezh, as well as in the International Cooperation section: http://www.rupto.ru/ru/international-cooperation.In order to ensure the uniform practical application of the provisions of Part IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation regulating the grant of legal protection to the subject matter of patent legislation and means of individualization, a range of guidelines have been posted on the FIPS website in the Inventions and Utility Models section:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/inventions_utility_models/rec_inv.


To assist the patent subdivisions and the State services of the science and education sector and organizations of the national nanotechnology network, a range of method-related materials are available on the website:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/regions/nano_pat;


In the Information Resources section, in the Open Registers, information is provided on registering intellectual property subject matter with an indication of its legal status or state of prosecution: 


http://new.fips.ru/elektronnye-servisy/otkrytye-reestry/.


Internet publications from the All-Russian Patent Technology Library Division are available on the FIPS website in the State Patent Collection and VPTB Information Products sections at:


  http://new.fips.ru/about/vptb-otdelenie-vserossiyskaya-patentno-tekhnicheskaya-biblioteka/


Presentation of patent information analysis capabilities using Office information products:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/publishing_activities/present.


For novice users of patent information, links can be found to WIPO publications in Russian under the “What is Intellectual Property?” heading in the For Beginners section:


http://new.fips.ru/to-applicants/dlya-novichkov/

Office's initiatives on providing foreign patent information in the local language(s) (e.g., machine translation tools, translation of abstracts)


In 2017 the PROMT Automated Translation System was updated with the latest version of PROMT PTS 12. The advanced functions of the version were available to examiners, both in the internal system of Rospatent PatSearch for the translation of patent documents, and at the workplaces from the server for the translation of patent and non-patent information from the Internet.


New thematic user dictionaries on examiners` themes based on IPC were added in the PROMT System. Also in the PROMT System new translation profiles were added and all the dictionaries available in PROMT system were redistributed taking into account the new profiles. The quality of the translation was improved by more exact correspondence of the profile theme and dictionaries in it with the subject of the translated text.


For the confident using by examiners of the PROMT System and other means of translation (Google Translate, Multitran dictionary, etc.), training courses were carried out and consultations were provided both at the workplaces and in the "Training and Computer Search" class.

Cooperation with universities, research centers, technology and innovation support centers, etc.


Given the importance of knowing the basics of intellectual property and in order to train new specialists in the skills for successful work in science, economics and industry, the VPTB Division holds a range of different events in cooperation with universities, research centers, Technology and Innovation Support Centers, etc., including:


  • In 2017 14 lectures, practical classes and excursions for higher education institutions’ students were held that were attended by 248 persons – for students of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, RGAIS, Russian University of Transport, Polytechnic College, Lyceum No. 1547 and for trainees of Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, finalists of Salon of inventions and FIPS employees’ children, MGIK trainees.
  • VPTB holds project events on promotion of knowledge on intellectual property among young people: the project for students form Moscow-based colleges “Inventors NEXT” (in coordination with Municipal methodic department of Department of Education of Moscow city and RGAIS); the project for students from Russian universities “Information on intellectual property for young people interested in science”. During these events there are meetings with state examiners and practical trainings on patent searches. VPTB works in with network organization, which work with gifted children who have shown outstanding ability in the field of technical creativity: Federal network of technoparks “Kvantorium”, Study center “Sirius”, Russian Children’s Centre “Orlyonok”. These events were attended by 546 persons.
  • For the first time one excursion was held for the Kaluga Branch of the All-Russian State University of Justice.
  • 24 thematic meetings were held in 2017: 13 of them were dedicated to new approaches to filing and examining applications for designs, trademarks and designations of origin, software, databases and integrated circuit topographies; new system of publications in Rospatent official bulletins; patenting abroad; preparation of analytical reports on patent landscapes; patent search in Espacenet and Patentscope databases; changes in the Regulation on Patent and Other Fees, changes in activities of Patent Disputes Chamber; 11 – to learning how to work with the electronic filing system to file applications for intellectual activity results and means of individualization.
  • 1983 persons form Moscow, Moscow oblast and 28 Russian cities took part in the thematic meetings in total including 486 via videoconference organized for 10 regional TISCs: Altai Regional Universal Scientific Library n.a. V.Y. Shishkov (Barnaul); Astrakhan State Medical University of Roszdrav; Belgorod National Research University; Belgorod State Universal Scientific Library; State Public Scientific and Technological Library of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SD RAS) (Novosibirsk, GPNTB SO RAN); Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University; Saratov Chernyshevsky State University; Research institute "Specvuzautomatica" (Rostov-on-Don); Tomsk Polytechnic University; Ural Federal University n.a. the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (Yekaterinburg). This year Bryansk Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Northern (Arctic) Federal University n. a. M. V. Lomonosov (Arkhangelsk), not being TISCs, took part in videoconferencing for the first time.
  • Assists with the updating, on a non-remunerated basis, of patent collections of patent documentation on optical disks in the regional organizations of the Russian Federation most actively involved in innovation processes. In 2017, 21 disks of foreign patent periodicals, were sent to the regions of Russia.


In 2017, as part of the Program for Regional Information Support, Rospatent provided 19 new accesses to FIPS’ full-text databases of descriptions of national inventions and utility models to business entities in the Russian regions free of charge, including an additional opportunity for Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISC) to conduct industrial design searches.


The opportunity to access databases on the FIPS website free of charge via the Internet was provided to 338 organizations in 8 federal districts of the Russian Federation as at December 31, 2016. Access was provided to: 2 support organizations; 8 science cities; 38 State scientific centers (SSC),416 scientific centers of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SC RAS), 17 organizations within the framework of the Federal Target Program, Development of Nanotechnology Infrastructure in the Russian Federation for 2008–2011 (FTP), 174 TISC and 58 other organizations.


In 2017, the FIPS project office conducted a series of masterclasses and organized intensive courses in patent analysis at Russia’s leading universities: the Bauman State Technical University, the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, and the Russian State Intellectual Property Academy.


Also in 2017, the project office took part in WIPO-organized seminars for the Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISCs) in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Kyrgyz Republic.

Education and training: training courses, e-learning modules (URLs), seminars, exhibitions, etc.


Organization of training and professional development of FIPS employees is carried out within the framework of the Unified Training System (UTS) on the principle of continuity, starting from the moment of employment. The provision of conditions for continuous professional development of employees is stipulated by the FIPS Charter.


The primary objective in 2017 was to continue the work on organizing classes for various categories of FIPS employees in connection with the issuance of new regulatory and legal acts regulating the rules and procedure for the provision of public services.


This was achieved through training employees according to the plans of professional training directly in FIPS subdivisions and centralized classes.


Intensive work began on the recruitment of trainee examiners, with the option to train as an examiner on a one-year course, with subsequent work placement as an intellectual-property examiner, as well as recruitment of part-time examiners. 



Organization of training of FIPS employees using internal forms


In accordance with the summary plans for internal training of employees approved by the director of FIPS, 19 centralized classes and 467 classes directly in FIPS subdivisions were conducted in 2017. The main focus of the training in 2017 was to study new provisions of regulatory acts concerning the provision of public services, changes to the Regulations on Patent and Other Fees.


The systematic training of examiner staff on the use of computer databases selected for conducting information searches in the process of examination and, automated systems used in the work, continued.


 Advanced training for novice FIPS examiners


The advanced training of novice specialists in the field of examination of inventions and utility models is carried out on a regular basis, with obtaining of an appropriate certificate.


Resulting from obtaining by FIPS of a license to conduct educational activities, the advanced training of novice examiners was carried out on the base of FIPS in accordance with the approved program in the volume of 232 academic hours. 27 experts have been trained.


 FIPS Educational Activity


The activities on implementation of additional professional programs are carried out on the basis of the license of the series 77JI01 No. 0008944 (reg. No. 0381 10) issued on December 19, 2016 by the Department of Education of Moscow.


In 2017 the Research and Educational Center was created in FIPS, which activity is aimed at the APE system development, promotion of educational programs at the world educational platforms.


In April 2017, in order to identify the training needs in the regions, all TISCs were questioned. The results of the questionnaire were used in the development of advanced training programs.


During the year, methodical documents on organization and execution of professional development of specialists within the scope of the educational license (12 titles) were developed and published on the FIPS website.


70 specialists of the defense industry complex and government customers underwent training courses on professional retraining and advanced training on the issues of management of rights to the results of intellectual activity


In 2017 within the composition of STC a new section “Development of educational activity” initiated its work. Special attention of the work of the section is given to the development, examination and adoption of APE programs.


11 advanced training programs and 2 retraining programs were developed and approved at STC sections. (see Table 6.4 of Appendix 6 to the Report).


In connection with the opening of the Novosibirsk branch of FIPS in March 2017, specially for the specialists of this department, from April 10 to May 18, 2017 a training was provided in the volume of 132 academic hours under a program "Examination of applications for utility models" (internal training). 12 persons completed the training.


FIPS actively cooperates with "Sirius" educational center, Rosatom, the regions of the Russian Federation in conducting training seminars and master classes.


The information on educational activities conducted by FIPS in 2017 is given in Table 6.5 of Appendix 6 to the Report.


In 2017, Rospatent participated in the organization and holding of 3 international exhibition and one international salon of inventions and innovations.


In 2017, Rospatent's specialists also took part in 4 exhibitions in 3 regions of the Russian Federation.


In 2017, Rospatent participated in organizing and holding 102 conferences, seminars and round-tables in 29 regions of the Russian Federation.


A total of over 3,000 people from various regions of the Russian Federation attended the conferences, seminars and round tables that took place in 2017.


The addresses of web pages of the Office’s site containing information about training, seminars and conferences:


- the "Training" section


http://new.fips.ru/about/deyatelnost/obuchenie/index.php;


 - the "Training seminars" section for TISCs of the RF:


http://www1.fips.ru/TISCs/teach_sem;


  - a plan of thematic meetings of the employees of Rospatent and FIPS with representatives of the business community dedicated to acquaintance with new by-laws for 2017.:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/fonds/archiv_meetings;


 - conferences and seminars in the regions of the Russian Federation in 2017:


http://www1.fips.ru/wps/wcm/connect/content_ru/ru/confers/arkhiv_conf.

Other activities

VI. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF PATENT INFORMATION

International exchange and sharing of patent information in machine-readable form, e.g., priority documents, bibliographic data, abstracts, search reports, full text information


In order to fulfill its obligations in relation to exchange of patent information, FIPS posts trademark documentation on the Institute’s FTP server, and has granted log-in and password access to the documentation to the offices of 47 foreign countries and four international organizations.


In order to keep the State patent collection up to date, the VPTB Division of FIPS at present engages in international exchange of patent documentation with 57 countries and six international organizations.


In 2017, VPTB of FIPS received:


- 3,053,521 copies of full descriptions of foreign patent documents electronically (of which 65,887 documents were received on optical disk, and 2,987,634 were downloaded from foreign patent office websites or Internet resources) from 18 countries and 2 organizations; 12 annual sets of invention descriptions on optical disks.


- 1,681 copies of Gazettes containing information on inventions were received in all formats from 42 countries: 64 paper copies; 205 copies on optical disks; and 1,412 copies were downloaded from the websites or Internet resources of foreign patent offices.


To address of the three countries participating in the project CISPATENT 16 sets (48 copies) of discs were transferred.


Under a Memorandum of Understanding signed at the instigation of WIPO between VPTB and the information and education services of the WIPO information division, as a WIPO Depository Library, VPTB has since 2009 received one copy, in English and Russian, of every new WIPO publication free of charge.


In 2017, Rospatent, acting as a Receiving Office, transferred 1058 registered copies of international applications and 817 certified copies of priority applications to WIPO electronically by means of PCT-EDI, without sending paper copies. 


In 2017, 3,898 international search reports and written notes prepared by Rospatent, acting as an International Searching Authority, were transferred to WIPO electronically by means of PCT-EDI.


Acting as International Preliminary Examining Authority, Rospatent transferred 60 of the international preliminary examination reports to WIPO electronically by means of ePCT.

Participation in international or regional activities and projects related to patent information


On May 29 - June 2, 2017 the 5-th session of the Committee on WIPO Standards took place. During the meeting, the participants discussed the revision of the WIPO ST.26 Standard, the new WIPO standard for exchange of data on the legal status of patents between industrial property offices, the new WIPO standard for office profile of patent documents published by the patent office, and the standardization of applicants’ names.


At the Committee meeting, it was decided to expand the WIPO Standard ST.96 to include an Extensible Markup Language (XML Schema) schema for geographical indications, previously proposed by FIPS representatives.


During the 5th session of the Committee, FIPS representatives took an active part in the technical meetings of the XML4IP Task Force, the Legal Status Task Force (LSTF), the Authority Files Task Force (AFTF) and the Sequence Listing Task Force (ST.26).


On September 18 - 22, 2017 a working meeting of the XML4IP Task Force took place in Ottawa (Canada). During the meeting, with the participation of FIPS representatives, decisions were taken on open issues related to the components of XML schemas related to common elements, patents, trademarks and industrial designs. The head of the working group confirmed that the release of version 3.0 is scheduled for 2017. The participants of the meeting discussed the draft XML Schema for Geographical Indications and Appellations of Origin, prepared by the FIPS staff. The list of directions on which the work on the development of the ST.96 standard will be continued was agreed upon.


In 2017, the translations into Russian of new WIPO standards were prepared and published on the Rospatent website:


- ST.68 "Electronic management of sound marks";


- ST.37 "Authority File of Published Patent Documents";


- ST.27 "Exchange of Patent Legal Status Data";


- the modified version of ST.26 "Presentation of nucleotide and amino acid sequence listings using XML."


In addition, the updating of all standards reviewed by WIPO over the past decade was completed in 2017.


As earlier in 2017 Rospatent took part in the work of Working groups and the Committee of experts of WIPO on the IPC revision.In 2017 Rospatent participated in activities of the working bodies of the PCT Union: PCT Committee for Technical Cooperation,  Meeting of International Authorities, PCT Quality Subgroup and PCT Working Group. The following questions remained as before in the focus of interest of Rospatent:  evaluation of different approaches to sharing search strategies, strengthening requirements for quality management systems, development of a set of measures to ensure the highest quality of international search and preliminary examination, review of the PCT minimum documentation, increased exchange of electronic documents between offices and WIPO, a more complete and effective use of the results of the International Authorities’ work in the transition of international applications to the national phase.


Along with the above mentioned issues Rospatent took part in the solution of the following problems:


- the increased use of PCT Online Services including the implementation of eSearchCopy;


- accession to the WIPO CASE system at first in the capacity of an Accessing Office and afterwards as a Providing one;


- study of Use of National Classification Symbols in International Applications;


- stimulation of Patent Filing by Universities through a flexible PCT Fee Policy;


 -transmittal by the Receiving Office of Earlier Search and/or Classification Results to the International Searching Authority.


For encouraging a wider use of PCT filing system by Russian applicants several roving seminars were arranged in industrially developed cities of the Russian Federation in cooperation with the International Bureau of WIPO.


During 2017 the cooperation between the Rospatent and foreign patent Offices under the Patent Prosecution Highway program (PPH) has been strengthen and extended. The bilateral PPH program (PPH-Mottainai and PCT-PPH) between the Rospatent and the European Patent Office (EPO) commenced since February, 01, 2018. By the end of 2017 there were 24 patent offices including the Rospatent participating in the Global PPH program. The program of examiner exchange with the Japanese Patent Office (JPO) under the Intellectual Property Protection Experience Exchange agreement has been extended. By the end of December, 2017, 2145 requests for participation in the PPH program were filed at the Rospatent acting as Office of First Filing/Office of Later examination since the inception of the PPH program.


The number of applications considered for the various types of PPH program significantly increases each year. National Phase Application Guidelines concerning new Rospatent fees were amended and brought into accordance with WIPO.


In 2017, the provisions of the Memorandum of Understanding between Rospatent and WIPO for the creation of TISCs in the Russian Federation continued to be implemented: 


1. 17 cooperation agreements have been signed, which include the main provisions for managing a Level-1 TISC;


 2. 15 tripartite Agreements have been signed (FIPS and Level-1 and Level-2 TISC Agreements) on the establishment of Level-2 TISCs.


On February 8-10, 2017, at the 5th TISC conference in Kazan, participants decided to establish a Level-3 TISC in order to implement a policy aimed at developing a culture of intellectual property among schoolchildren, seeking out talent, cultivating and working with them, and training future professionals for the emerging markets of the national technology initiative from a strategic perspective. Pursuant to that decision, four tripartite Agreements were signed during the reporting period (Agreements between FIPS, and Level-1 and Level-3 TISCs).


As at the end of 2017, TISC had been established at 174 economic entities from 69 regions in 8 federal districts of the Russian Federation. A full list of economic entities providing TISC services has been posted on the Internet on the official FIPS website (www.fips.ru) in the Cooperation with Regions of Russia, Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISCs) section.


An important aspect of the TISC project is conducting free training seminars and workshops for training center staff. In 2017, Rospatent held 2 training seminars:


- On April 25, a practical seminar was held, which addressed issues relating to a review of the FIPS website, and work with the ESPACENET and PATENTSCOPE databases. 33 specialists from regional TISCs took part in the seminar;


- On April 26, a seminar organized jointly with WIPO was held, at which FIPS staff presented. During the event, a video conference took place with three regional TISCs in three regions of Russia (Novosibirsk, Barnaul, and Astrakhan). In all, 56 people took part in the seminar. 


From May 16-19, the 20th Moscow International Salon of Inventions and Innovative Technologies, ‘Archimedes-2017’ was held at the Sokol’niki Exhibition and Convention Center in Moscow, with the support of the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of Moscow, WIPO, Rospatent, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Russia, and the All-Russian Society of Inventors and Innovators. Representatives of 300 organizations, and participants from 22 States and 52 regions of the Russian Federation, presenting 1,100 inventions and innovative technologies, took part in Salon ‘Archimedes-2017’. .


In accordance with Annexes 1 and 2 to the Agreement on TISC, during 2017, the VPTB Division sent TISC sets of Russian patent documentation on DVD-ROM optical disks (1,185 discs in total).


Information products and materials prepared by the VPTB Division were regularly updated, and posted on the FIPS website in the Information Resources for TISC section. To inform users about information products and services of the VPTB, the TISCS section provides an additional link to the section "VPTB Division."


 During 2017 VPTB took part in 14 projects related to intellectual property protection promotion and commercialization of the results of intellectual activity – the All-Russian Forum “Future Intellectual Leaders of Russia” (Yaroslavl), All-Russian research and practice conference “Young Adults’ Book Space Geometry. Young-adult Literature and Young-adult Reading” in Russian State Library for Young Adults (Moscow), signing of the trilateral cooperation agreement between Rospatent, FIPS and Federal State Autonomous Institution “Russian Foundation for Educational Development” on the platform of “Open Innovations” forum in Skolkovo (network of children’s technoparks “Kvantorium”), the business game with case studies solutions “How to Carry out a Search in Patscape” via videoconference for the participants of the “Kvantorium” technopark of Russian Children’s Centre “Orlyonok” in Tuapse Region (in framework of the trilateral Cooperation agreement implementation), XVII International research and practice conference “Modern Russian Law: the interaction between science, rule-making and practice” in Lomonosov Moscow State University (Moscow), IV Russian Youth Library Convent (with international participation) in RGUB (Moscow), the educational session for teaching staff of the network of children’s technoparks “Kvantorium” and the seminar on patent search (Korolyov), II All-Russian meeting of young inventors “Intellectual Alarm” (Kazan), the work of information stand on “Polytechnic 2017” fair in Bauman MSTU, The All-Russian science and practice conference “Library in Information Educational Environment of Higher Education Institution: Traditions and Innovations” in Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev (Nizhny Novgorod), the international conference “Chemical Technology of Functional Nanomaterial” in D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Moscow), the seminar “To academic youth about intellectual property” on All-Russian forum “The Wealth of Russia” in Bauman MSTU (Moscow), XV youth science and technology conference “Radio location and radio communication: advanced technologies” hosted by PAO “Radiofizika” (Moscow), the meeting of the FIPS director Zubov Y.S. with RSAU – MTAA n.a. K.A. Timiryazev students (Moscow).

Assistance to developing countries


In accordance with the Agreements between Rospatent and the International Bureau of WIPO, Rospatent, acting as an International Searching Authority and International Preliminary Examining Authority, prepares search reports with preliminary examination reports on applications filed with the International Bureau of WIPO by developing countries. In 2017, Rospatent received no such applications and no search reports were prepared.

Other activities

VII. OTHER RELATED MATTERS


Section "International Cooperation" on the website of the Office:


http://www.rupto.ru/ru/international-cooperation.

 

1.Classification is allotting one or more classification symbols (e.g., IPC symbols) to a patent application, either before or during search and examination, which symbols are then published with the patent application.

2. Preclassification is allotting an initial broad classification symbol (e.g., IPC class or subclass, or administrative unit) to a patent application, using human or automated means for internal administrative purposes (e.g., routing an application to the appropriate examiner).  Usually preclassification is applied by the administration of an office.

3. Reclassification is the reconsideration and usually the replacement of one or more previously allotted classification symbols to a patent document, following a revision and the entry into force of a new version of the Classification system (e.g., the IPC).  The new symbols are available on patent databases.